MLA Citation Guide (MLA 8th Edition): Images, Charts, Graphs, & Tables
Jul 19, · The "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (APA) does not give specific directions for citing charts; follow the general APA guidelines for referencing graphical data and indicate that the data is in chart form. State the name of the author or publishing organization. For example, "Smith, A. J." or "U.S. Census Bureau.". Feb 18, · If you refer to information from an image, chart, table or graph, but do not reproduce it in your paper, create a citation both in-text and on your Reference list. If the information is part of another format, for example a book, magazine article, encyclopedia, etc., cite the work it came datingescortusa.com: Haidee Kowal.
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Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association6 th ed. Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online untilbut will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here.
Graphs are good at quickly conveying relationships like comparison and distribution. The most common forms of graphs are scatter plots, line graphs, bar graphs, pictorial graphs, and pie graphs. For more details and specifics on what kind of information, relations, and meaning can be expressed with the different types of graphs, consult your textbook on quantitative analysis. Spreadsheet programs, such as Microsoft Excel, can generate the graphs for you.
Scatter plots are composed of individual dots that represent the value of a specific event on the scale established by the two variables plotted on the x - and y -axes. When the dots cluster together, a correlation is implied.
On the other hand, when the dots are scattered randomly, no correlation is seen. Figure 1. Example of a Scatter Plot Graph. This figure demonstrates a proper scatter plot graph. Line graphs depict the relationship between quantitative variables. Usually, the independent variable is plotted along the x -axis horizontally and the dependent variable is plotted along the y -axis vertically. Bar graphs come in three main types: 1 solid vertical or horizontal bars, 2 multiple bar graphs, and 3 sliding bars.
In solid bar graphs, the independent variable is categorical, and each bar represents one kind of datum, e. A multiple bar graph can show more complex information than a simple bar graph, e.
In sliding bar graphs, the bars are divided by a horizontal line which serves as the baseline, enabling the representation of data above and below a specific reference point, e. Pictorial graphs can be used to show quantitative differences between groups. Pictorial graphs can be very deceptive: if the height of an image is doubled, its area is quadrupled. Therefore, great care should be taken that images representing the same values must be the same size. Circle pie graphs are used to represent percentages and proportions.
For the sake of readability, no more than five variables should be compared in a single pie graph. Lines and dots can be used for shading how to cite a chart in apa black and white documents. Figure 5. Example of a Circle or Pie Graph.
This figure shows an example of a circle pie graph. Charts are used to represent the components of larger objects or groups e. Drawings and photographs can be used to communicate very specific information about a subject. Thanks to software, both are now highly manipulable. For the sake of readability and simplicity, line drawings should be used, and photographs should have the highest possible contrast between the background and focal point.
Cropping, cutting out extraneous detail, can be very beneficial for a photograph. Use software like GraphicConverter or Photoshop to convert color photographs to black and white before printing on a laser printer. Otherwise most printers will produce an image with poor contrast. In preparing figures, communication and readability must be the ultimate criteria. Avoid the temptation to use the special effects available in most advanced software packages.
While three-dimensional effects, shading, and layered text may look interesting to the author, overuse, inconsistent use, and misuse may distort the data, and distract or even annoy readers. Design properly done is inconspicuous, almost invisible, because it supports communication. The APA has determined specifications for the size of figures and the fonts used what is the ac wall plug for macbook pro them.
Figures of one column must be between 2 and 3. Two-column figures must be between 4. The height of figures should not exceed the top and bottom margins. The text in a figure should be in a san serif font such as Helvetica, Arial, or Futura. The font size must be between eight and fourteen point. Use circles and squares to distinguish curves on a line graph at the same font size as the other labels.
See examples above. For figures, make sure to include the figure number and a title with a legend and caption. These elements appear below the visual display.
For the figure number, type Figure X. Then type the title of the figure in sentence case. Follow the title with a legend that explains the symbols in how to cite a chart in apa figure and what is a pos in health insurance caption that explains the figure:.
Captions serve as a brief, but complete, explanation and as a title. If the figure has a title in the image, crop it. Additionally, if the image is reproduced from another source, include the citation at the end of the caption. Graphs should always include a legend that explains the symbols, abbreviations, and terminology used in the figure. These terms must be consistent with those used in the text and in other figures. The lettering in the legend should be of the same type and size as that used in the figure.
Figure 2. Example of a Line Graph. This figure demonstrates a proper line graph. Figure 3. Example of a Bar Graph what jobs can i do with a political science degree. This figure shows an example of a bar graph.
Figure 4. Example of a Bar Graph 2. This figure shows a second example of a bar graph. Figure 6. Example of a Chart. This figure shows a chart. Figure 7. Example of a Photograph. This figure shows an example of a photograph. How to create figures in APA style.
This figure illustrates effective elements in APA style figures.
Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication . How to Format Graphs, Charts & Figures in APA NOTE: This is a basic guide to formatting charts, graphs, and figures in APA. You should always follow your professor’s instructions about layout, style and citations and consult this guide as a reference. How to Insert a Graph or Chart on Your Computer datingescortusa.com Size: KB. A figure may be a chart, a graph, a photograph, a drawing, or any other illustration or nontextual depiction. Any type of illustration or image other than a table is referred to as a figure. Figure Components: Number: The figure number(e.g. Figure 1) appears above the figure in bold Title: The figure title appears one double-spaced line below the figure number in italic title datingescortusa.com: Fen Su.
Published on November 6, by Jack Caulfield. Revised on April 8, When you reprint or adapt a table or figure from another source, the source should be acknowledged in an in-text citation and in your reference list. Follow the format for the source type you took the table or figure from. You also have to include a copyright statement in a note beneath the table or figure. The example below shows how to cite a figure from a journal article.
Table of contents Citing tables and figures Including a copyright note Examples from different source types Frequently asked questions about APA Style citations. Tables and figures taken from other sources are numbered and presented in the same format as your other tables and figures. Refer to them as Table 1, Figure 3, etc. You should also include the source in the reference list. Follow the standard format for the source type you took the table or figure from. As well as a citation and reference, when you reproduce a table or figure in your own work, you also need to acknowledge the source in a note directly below it.
This is followed by information about the source title, author, year, publisher, and location , and then copyright information at the end. A source will either be under standard copyright, under a Creative Commons license, or in the public domain. You need to state which of these is the case. Under standard copyright, you sometimes also need permission from the publisher to reprint or adapt materials.
If you sought and obtained permission, mention this at the end of the note. Look for information on copyright and permissions from the publisher. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment! Get started! Copyright information can usually be found wherever the table or figure was published. Images found on sites like Flickr are listed with clear copyright information.
If you find that permission is required to reproduce the material, be sure to contact the author or publisher and ask for it. A list of tables and list of figures appear in that order after your table of contents, and are presented in a similar way. If you adapt or reproduce a table or figure from another source, you should include that source in your APA reference list. You should also include copyright information in the note for the table or figure, and include an in-text citation when you refer to it.
Tables and figures you created yourself, based on your own data, are not included in the reference list. Thanks for reading! Hope you found this article helpful. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines.
Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. Reference list Shi, F. Analysis of trip generation rates in residential commuting based on mobile phone signaling data. Journal of Transport and Land Use , 12 1 , — Shi and L. Zhu, , Journal of Transport and Land Use , 12 1 , p.
Are your APA in-text citations flawless? From a journal article From a website From a book Note format Note. Copyright statement. Note Note. Note format Note. From or Adapted from Page Title , by Initials.
Last name , Year URL. Copyright by Scribbr. Reference list Streefkerk, R. A complete guide to APA in-text citation. From or Adapted from Book Title p. Page number , by Initial. Simon, , p. Copyright by Free Press. Reprinted with permission. Reference list Simon, H. Free Press. How can I find copyright information on tables and figures from other sources? Should I include lists of my tables and figures in an APA paper? Should I include tables and figures in my APA reference list? Is this article helpful?
He writes and edits for Scribbr, and reads a lot of books in his spare time. Other students also liked. How to format tables and figures in APA Style APA tables and figures are preceded by a number and title, and followed by explanatory notes if necessary. Double-space all text and apply a hanging indent. Still have questions?
Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. Learn more. Shi, F. Streefkerk, R. Simon, H. Citing personal communications in APA Style.
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