Cross-Breeding and Pollinating Cannabis: An Overview
The precise number of cannabis strains in the world is unknown, although it is likely to exceed 1, It is a number certain to increase exponentially in the next decade or so, now that medical marijuana is legal in two-thirds of American states and is fully legal in Canada.
If you look at strains from the s and again at what is in your local dispensary today, there is no comparison. Now, numerous states allow home cultivation. As a result, intrepid growers are busily trying to create the next great strain. There is a suggestion that all marijuana strains are the same — which is complete nonsense. Lab testing alone will confirm differing levels of cannabinoidsterpenoids, and flavonoids from one strain to the next.
What you might not be prepared for is the differences between the same strain! Most cannabis users have found a variety they enjoy, but are often surprised by the lack of consistency in the strain. There are several reasons why this is the case. Growing environment and techniques, along with lighting, will change the final outcome.
However, the real reason for the inconsistency lies in cannabis genetics and breeding. Marijuana is a plant but bears no resemblance to other garden favorites what are volcanoes for kids as the tomato plant in terms of growing consistency. This glorious consistency is notably absent from weed seeds. As you know, female plants are grown for their THC-laden budswhile male plants are used to pollinate females to get seeds.
As it is a dioecious plant, you have to pollinate the female with the male. As a consequence, crossbreeding marijuana plants is a lengthy, unpredictable, and utterly frustrating experience. Many breeders begin with a clone-only strain and try to develop a seed-based strain that has the traits of one of its parent plants. If you go down this route, expect a different result with every seed. Sure, you can sprout a few seeds and sell them under a popular strain name, but they are unlikely to be the strains you initially wanted.
If you are a marijuana grower today, how to repair cab files are very fortunate to live in an age where there is an enormous range of genetics to choose from. Dedicated growers traveled the world to find landrace strains which we now use to breed our own strains. Growers visiting regions such as the How to cross pollinate weed Kush Mountains would have been greeted with strains of cannabis with traits they had never seen before.
They brought back dozens of seeds and evaded law enforcement in the process! Although the Ruderalis was small and thin, it could grow in inclement weather. The buds how to draw a cartoon chiwawa not especially potent but their ability to auto-flower within a few weeks, regardless of lighting schedules, made these plants a hot commodity.
In this scenario, the Ruderalis plant by itself was not something most breeders wanted to grow due to the small buds and low THC levels. However, by crossbreeding Ruderalis seeds with high-THC genetics, it was possible to create an auto-flowering strain with a medium to high THC content. It is NOT something you how to cross pollinate weed get right the first time. Indeed, it will probably take multiple generations of plants, and several years, before you perfect the art of crossbreeding.
Remember, every marijuana plant is a bit different, and when you grow a seedthe seedlings will have a combination of traits from both parents.
Eventually, you could end up with weird, unique, and wonderful new strains. Quality genetics is always the first step so here are the traits to consider when selecting strains for breeding:. The larger the genetic pool, the easier it is to find the right traits. Unless you have a commercial operation, it is unlikely that you can grow more than a few plants at a time.
There is also the small matter of obeying the laws in your state! As you breed together plants from differing strains, you can create new strains that carry interesting traits from their parents. It is a list of the traits you see in a plant. They are similar to the traits kids get from their parents, and every child is a different phenotype.
For example, if both your parents are tall, you are likely also to be tall. If you have one short and one tall parent, you could be tall or short, and your siblings could be much taller or shorter than you. Unstabilized strains often carry several phenotypes, which means that two plants of the same strain are likely to exhibit different traits.
Stabilized strains display the same phenotype, which means plants of the same strain will grow in the same way. You can achieve this by manipulating your genetic stock through breeding and back-crossing until you end up with parents that consistently produce offspring that grow the same.
This is essentially cloning in seed form. Back-crossing involves taking a plant and crossing it with one of its parents or a close family member. This inbreeding helps create offspring with genetic similarities to the chosen parent. A clone of a plant is a genetic copy of the original and will grow how to cross pollinate weed same when exposed to the same environmental conditions.
However, despite being a clone, the plant will NOT grow the same if you expose it to different conditions to what the original plant grew in. Hopefully, you now have a better idea of what crossbreeding entails, and the likely outcomes. The first step is to choose your female and male plants. When choosing a female, simply grow your weed as normal and if a female plant has nice, fat buds, grows well how to cross pollinate weed is generally healthy, keep it.
Finding ideal male plants is less simple. Eventually, you will find a male plant that offers desirable traits to the offspring. Once you have the male and female plants, keep them separate during the growing process. Always ensure that males are separated from females as soon as the small pollen sacs on males their pre-flowers show. Otherwise, the males will pollinate the females, and you end up with unknown genetics.
When the pollen sacs are well developed, begin collecting the pollen. An easy method is to place an open Ziplock bag around the stem and shake it. The pollen will fall off and go into the bag. Make sure you use it within a month. Also, make sure you shower and change clothes after visiting the males because pollen sticks to everything!
The females are ready for pollination a few weeks after what does dodge srt stand for signs of white pistils. There will probably be buds forming at that stage, but the pistils should still be white they begin to turn a red or brown color when harvest time approaches.
Place the bag of pollen over how to play i hate everything about you on piano stem which has several buds growing.
Shake the bag to ensure the buds get coated with pollen. Cover the site with the bag for a couple of hours and shake it again to get the last bits of pollen out. Leave the bag on the site for a few more hours and remove it carefully.
In fact,it is a good idea to use a vegetative stage feeding what to do today in melbourne. Seeds should begin to form a couple of weeks later and will burst through their calyxes a few weeks afterward.
Germinate your seeds in the usual manner and take notes on how they grow. This means keeping a journal which highlights details such as flowering time, potency, color, taste, and scent. No matter what, make sure you keep detailed records and test your plants regularly. Be kind and alert other growers to any negative phenotypes that must be bred out. Above all else, breed plants you enjoy.
The issue here is that when you focus on one trait, you pay less attention to others. Growing patterns: Is it short and bushy or tall and skinny?
How long is the flowering stage? What kind of yield can you expect? To do this, observe the plant while it is growing. Durability: How quickly do the plants grow? Is it highly resistant to mold and pests?
Does it have strong stems? How does it handle hot and cold temperatures? What is a Phenotype? Stabilized Strains Unstabilized strains often carry several phenotypes, which means that two plants of the same strain are likely to exhibit different traits. A Quick Overview of Crossbreeding Hopefully, you now have a better idea of what crossbreeding entails, and the likely outcomes.
Pollen Collection When the pollen sacs are well developed, begin collecting the pollen. Pollinating the Female Plants The females are ready for pollination a few weeks after displaying signs of white pistils. Plant Your Seeds Germinate your how to go to ariant in the usual manner and take notes on how they grow. Table of Contents. Related Articles. The cultivation method of the future?
How to Create Customized Strains by Cross-Breeding
Aug 13, · How to Pollinate Cannabis 1.) Collect Pollen When Pollen Sacs Start to Open. Pollen is collected from male marijuana plants after they start 2.) Pollinate Female Plant That's Weeks in Flowering. It's time to pollinate when your plant has been in . Pollinate Females – Female cannabis plants are ready to be pollinated a few weeks after they first show signs of white pistils. At this point there will be individual . Sep 17, · How to Prevent Cross-Pollination on Your Cannabis or Hemp Farm. 1. Talk to your neighbors. “Farmers talking to each other and coordinating planting is first and foremost in containing cross pollination issues,” 2. Make sure you—and your neighbors—can find and cull male plants. Gregg Gnecco, vice.
Cross-pollination between hemp and cannabis plants in Washington has been a concern since the Farm Bill passed and hemp production across the state more than tripled, with more than 78, acres farmed for hemp alone last year. But in April, when Gov.
And when plants invest energy in seed production, they produce less CBD—making them less valuable. Farmers can stagger their plantings, she says, which can reduce the risk of cross-pollination. Communication is best practice to solve most issues with an absence of regulations. Burton even suggests creating an online sharing platform among your neighbors. That way, when issues or new technologies come up, they can be shared in real time and to everyone.
Gregg Gnecco, vice president of sales and operations for Hemp Northwest , a hemp processor and distributor, says that when you talk to your neighboring farms, you should also discuss whether you plan to grow an open pollenated grain or fiber field, which can affect pollination—and your plans for finding and culling male plants. To identify and cull male plants, you will need visually inspect every single plant on your plot, then manually remove and destroy any males from August through October, says Oliver.
With the law that mandated a four-mile wide barrier now gone, farmers who want a buffer zone will have to create one themselves. Oliver recommends farmers voluntarily adopt a setback of several miles. Etienne Fontan: When the laws changed with Prop. On Jan. Other states had done it, so we knew it was possible here in California; however, California is unlike other states that have [legalized], just due to its large size. California wanted to embrace the regulatory aspect of it, so they spent a year or so speculating [on] different aspects of the law, which were challenging to us as the retailers because we were no longer wholesalers or distributors anymore.
We were now retail [only]. Regulations have opened up to allow for advertising. But at the same time, good luck finding a bank.
The challenges are still there. They have changed somewhat, but at the same time, due to the federal prohibition, we are still all illegal. EF: In , the federal government came. We had spent the first 12 years in a location that was over 1, feet from a private French school. The government came and tried to evict us, saying that as the crow flies—which is corner to corner, property to property—we were within some-odd feet.
We closed down on May 1 as a retail location and by the end of the month, we opened up as a delivery service. That delivery service kept us going, and we found a new property.
In December , a mere six months later, we would open up at our location where we currently are. The federal government then changed its rules and wrote to us and tried to forcefully evict us, saying we were now within 1, feet of a daycare center or childcare facility. The law stops at K It has nothing to do with pre-K or anything like that. So, we sued the federal government and after four years, we won.
In , the federal government threw in the towel against us, and we ended up winning our case, allowing us to exist in our current location.
EF: Prior to [Prop. If it passed, then it could go to be weighed and dealt with. If it failed, it was given back to the farmer. Now, [in] the post-[Prop. We deal with distributors and manufacturers. Manufacturers, of course, make the products and they have to be sold through distribution centers here in California. They have sort of a separation of church and state now.
Where we used to deal with every aspect of it, now we just receive product, so things have just changed in the past two years with how we deal with product. We have to store a great deal of product to have on hand. EF: Back then, in the first five years, we were only hiring activists.
We were not hiring retail people because, again, we were all expecting to be arrested. We went through raid scenarios. We had raid drills. We would have dispensaries that were raided, and we organized and sent people with signs to be active and stir up the media so that people could see what was actually going down.
The reality is, you had to put your absolute freedom on the line to be a dispensary person. Every person that we hired, we made them aware that we could be arrested today—that was a reality. We started to hire real consultants to come in. There has been a product change, which has [also] been significant and exponential. Not all of [the] products and product lines that were available prior to [Prop. Not many of them could afford to make the leap. BPG was able to bootstrap all through the 20 years.
It was very challenging early on because you could not advertise. You had to rely on word of mouth. You had to build your reputation from the ground up. You take care of your reputation. You make sure your product is good.
The public are not afraid to tell you what they think, especially if you fall below the expectations or the criteria that you set. You have to live up to your expectations every single day, and you have to hold the standards that you believe in, from the start, and maintain them all through every aspect of your outfit. EF: You have to hire good people. As opposed to activists, we changed to looking at people who had retail experience because they could understand products [and] product lines, and [they could] educate people at a more concise level than in the past.
That then requires us to be better educators. We used to hire for all departments. Berkeley Patients Group had a front desk. We had security, and then we had people behind the counter. As we became more professional, we realized we have to have job descriptions. You have to have real breakdowns of what your expectations are of people.
When we were activists, no one was thinking about a k. However, when you go to a regular job, these are aspects that people are looking [at], to save for their futures.
So, we looked to other businesses for how to normalize and what benefits packages would be beneficial to our people—everything from payroll to banking to benefits packages and insurance. Those are all challenging. Applbaum and Classey are the latest talent the company has attracted to join its leadership team in building global iconic cannabis brands to improve the well-being of consumers. With his expertise in the premier spirits and consumer goods businesses, Applbaum will lead Surterra's global marketing teams and direct product innovation, integrated brand marketing, retail brand and sales management initiatives reporting directly to Surterra Chief Executive Officer William "Beau" Wrigley Jr.
As an accomplished senior marketing expert, Lee is exceptional at branding products in ways consumers connect with authentically, engaging with consumers at the right moments, and making the complex simple — all critically important in the cannabis business," said Wrigley. At Bacardi, he led two global integrated marketing organizations across more than countries reporting to the global CEO.
Applbaum began his career at the Coca-Cola Company. I'm excited to make the leap from luxury spirits to the dynamic cannabis industry because of Beau Wrigley's vision for Surterra and the industry.
I'm honored to join a team of the most experienced and game-changing leaders of global iconic companies and brands to create innovative cannabis products and authentic brands that will make a big impact on the well-being of consumers," said Applbaum.
Classey, who will be based in London and report to Wrigley, joins Surterra as its first international executive leadership team member, signaling the company's readiness to expand into Europe and other international markets. She also led the commercial launch of SmartWater and Vitamin Water in Europe for the Coca-Cola Company, having worked at the company in its water and juice divisions for two decades. As an entrepreneurial leader who has led successful launches of consumer and regulated products across Europe, Philippa is a strategic addition to our leadership team," said Wrigley.
The new production space encompasses approximately 55, square feet and can readily consume between 3, and 5, pounds of biomass per week — with distillate processing from its ethanol extraction train in the to liter per week range. Today's announcement enhances Flower One's ability to generate product from its more than , pounds 62, kg of dry cannabis flower and trim expected annually from the greenhouse. Thomas Rosengren, director of extraction and production, reported: "The launch of Flower One's bulk distillate process train has been a resounding success — with early lot potencies already testing in the plus percent range.
Flower One's production lab has been intentionally designed for large-scale product fulfillment. By leveraging multiple extraction methods — namely ethanol, LPG, and CO2 — that run in parallel, Flower One has access to three upstream extraction channels, granting it the flexibility to leverage the specific extraction techniques needed to produce a wide range of cannabis products.
Beyond extraction, the lab will engage in refinement, compounding and commercial-kitchen-related activities, including ongoing optimization via data-driven continuous improvement processes. Salazar has been in the cannabis space for 11 years, helping to craft legislation in Colorado and founding MMJ America in After selling his share of MMJ America in , Salazar moved toward the opportunities in hemp that had first opened up through industrial pilot programs a few years prior.
Seeing the success of growers working with the cannabis plant in a broader marketplace, Salazar decided to bring his expertise to this new challenge. Vertical integration in this marketplace, he felt, was key. The company will also wholesale its hemp biomass on the newly legal interstate market and work with other companies on white-labeling hemp-based products.
To get the job done, Solari is partnering with fourth-generation hemp farmers in Colorado. But Solari is founded on more than just business acumen acquired from years in the cannabis industry. The hemp space is different—economically, demographically and agriculturally.
When growing and selling cannabis flower, for instance, cultivation businesses operate on the fundamental promise of making that flower presentable. How do you get this stuff out of the ground without destroying it? That was a big challenge. Coming from a controlled environment, Salazar says a major challenge was found in mitigating risk outdoors.