Total Station Mapping: Practical Examples from Alta and Baja California
A total station (TS) or total station theodolite (TST) is an electronic/optical instrument used for surveying and building datingescortusa.com is an electronic transit theodolite integrated with electronic distance measurement (EDM) to measure both vertical and horizontal angles and the slope distance from the instrument to a particular point, and an on-board computer to collect data and perform. УCoordinateФ > УStation OrientationФ > УStation CoordinateФ Set the target height to the measured height of the mirror target. Make sure you use the metric side of the tape measure if working with metric units. You do not have to fill out the other fields for a REM measurement, however, it is good.
Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must log in to ask a question. Become VIP Member. Do you need to remove the ads? Total station is a surveying equipment combination of Electromagnetic Distance Measuring Instrument and electronic theodolite. It is also integrated with microprocessor, electronic data collector and storage system. The instrument can be used to measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as sloping distance of object to the instrument.
Data collected and processed in a Total Station can be downloaded to computers for further processing. Total station is a compact instrument and weighs 50 to 55 N. A person can easily carry it to the field. Total stations with different accuracy, in angle measurement and different range of measurements are available in the market. Tokyo, Japan. Electronic distance measuring EDM instrument is a major part of total station.
Its range varies from 2. The accuracy of measurement varies from 5 mm to 10 mm per km measurement. They are what is the meaning of capitalize with automatic target recognizer. The distance measured is always sloping distance from instrument to the object. The electronic theodolite part of total station is used for measuring vertical and horizontal angle. For measurement of horizontal angles any convenient direction may be taken as reference direction.
For vertical angle measurement vertical upward zenith direction is taken as reference direction. The accuracy of angle measurement varies from 2 to 6 seconds. This instrument is provided with an inbuilt microprocessor. The microprocessor averages multiple observations. With the help of slope distance and vertical and horizontal angles measured, when height of axis of instrument and targets are supplied, the microprocessor computes the horizontal distance and X, Y, Z coordinates.
The processor is capable of applying temperature and pressure corrections to the measurements, if atmospheric temperature and pressures are supplied.
Electronic display unit is capable of displaying various values when respective keys are pressed. The system is capable of displaying horizontal distance, vertical distance, horizontal and vertical angles, difference in elevations of two observed points and all the three coordinates of the observed points.
Each point data can be stored in an electronic note book like compact disc. The capacity of electronic note book varies from points to points data. Surveyor can unload the data stored in note book to computer and reuse the note book. The total station instrument is mounted on a tripod and is levelled by operating levelling screws.
Within a small range instrument is capable of adjusting itself to what is a negative averment level position. Then vertical and horizontal reference directions are indexed using onboard keys. Surveyor can select measurement mode like fine, coarse, single or repeated. When target is sighted, horizontal and vertical angles as well as sloping distances are measured and by pressing appropriate keys they are recorded along with point number.
Heights how to use sokkia total station pdf instrument and targets can be keyed in after measuring them with tapes. Then processor computes various information about the point and displays on screen. This information is also stored in the electronic notebook. At the end of the day or whenever electronic note book is full, the information stored is downloaded to computers.
The point data downloaded to the computer can be used for further processing. There are software like auto civil and auto plotter clubbed with AutoCad which can be used for plotting contours at any specified interval and for plotting cross-section along any specified line.
The following are some of the major advantages of using total station over the conventional surveying instruments:. However, surveyor should check the working condition of the instruments before using. For this standard points may be located near survey office and before taking out instrument for field work, its working is checked by observing those standard points from the specified instrument station. Modern Surveying Instruments and Their Uses. What is Contour Interval?
Its Calculation, Uses and When it is Required. Roles and Work of Surveyor in Construction. Join Join TheConstructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. Have an account? Log in Now. Join for free or log in to continue reading Remember Me! Don't have account, Join Here. Forgot Password Lost your password? Ask A Question. Contents: What is a Total Station? Previous article. Next article. Gopal Mishra. Related Posts.
USE. This product is designed to be used by a professional. The user should have a good knowledge of the safe use of the product and implement the types of safety procedures recommended by the local government protection agency for both private use and commercial job sites. COPYRIGHT. All information contained in this Manual is the. Learn how to do just about everything at eHow. Find expert advice along with How To videos and articles, including instructions on how to make, cook, grow, or do almost anything. ??????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????.
A Sokkia SET electronic total station was used to map the archaeological site of Mission Santa Catalina in northern Baja California and The use of electronic total data stations for mapping a cluster of three shell mounds in China Camp State archaeological sites is examined through two California Park, Marin County, California Fig.
In each case case studies. Mission Santa Catalina, located in the high study, we discuss the project area, our project goals, the desert of Baja California, and a cluster of three shell data collection strategies we employed and the reasoning mounds, located in a forest in the San Francisco Bay behind them, as well as the techniques used for the area, represent two different examples of organizing and production of different digital mapping products.
We implementing a mapping program using a total station. The two case studies will offer in-depth consideration of different data collection strategies and techniques used for the production of digital maps, and we stress the broad application of total stations for accurate and efficient mapping in a variety of study settings.
China Camp State Park From the earliest days of the discipline, archaeologists have relied on maps to better understand the spatial attributes of archaeological sites and to convey such information to other scholars. From Pacific Ocean mechanical transits and plane tables to robotic total stations and the Global Positioning System GPS , a quick survey of archaeological site mapping literature from the past twenty years reveals a florescence in N technology available to archaeologists e.
While many archaeologists working in Mission Santa Catalina California employ one form of mapping or another in 0 Kilometers their research, the speed of technological development in the field has outpaced the publication of technical Figure 1. Locations of archaeological sites reports detailing the use and rationale behind some of described in this article.
It goes without saying that maps are an important The shell mound cluster, however, is located in a wooded part of most archaeological projects. In this article, we will focus our attention on the survey and recording The physical characteristics of a given archaeological site of archaeological sites using an electronic total data will determine in large part the manner in which data stationЧan instrument that combines an electronic are collected for a particular map, but there are some theodolite with an electronic distance measurement constant fundamentals of total station use.
For instance, device EDM. A typical total station uses an infrared we recommend the use of the coordinate mapping laser to measure distances and uses an on-board electronic function of the total station, which enables researchers to theodolite to calculate angles to reference points.
It record a range of pointsЧfrom across an archaeological is used for a variety of survey purposes, including the siteЧthat conform to an X, Y, Z coordinate system. With a later date, we follow a conventional method which careful set-up and ideal conditions, the use of a total involves setting the primary datum point to an arbitrary station allows archaeologists to collect geographic data coordinate, such as meters north, meters east, with extreme accuracy 0.
While the cost of total station instrumentsЧand of system. For excellent detailed in space to accommodate data more than meters summaries of the range of mapping instruments south or west of the original arbitrary datum; or correlate available to archaeologists, see Hester et al.
Howard Like most total stations, the Sokkia instrument used also presents case studies and techniques for producing for these studies does not contain an internal compass. Several internet sites provide easily accessible explicitly relate how and why these data were collected.
We suggest the use of a traditional mapping strategy, and then present two brief case studies optical transit to establish a line running true north from Alta and Baja California that will demonstrate or other cardinal direction from the primary datum. The site of Mission the primary datum can be used as a back sight to establish Santa Catalina, for example, is characterized by sparse, the horizontal angle for the total station.
The new grid function of the instrument. The use of a point along one file. GRD can then be used to create different visual of the cardinal directions from the primary datum also representations of the data. Specific algorithms e. Once the instrument has been successfully set up and oriented, the process of data collection can begin with Creating Digital Raster Maps at least two crew membersЧa stadia rod-holder and Through the process of gridding, X, Y, Z data are total station operator.
We recommend at least one more transformed to create a number of different raster map crew member to help record point data in a notebook formats, including contour maps, surface maps, post in the event that the total station is lost or destroyed. Contour This third crew member can additionally help facilitate maps, for example, are useful for displaying topographic the survey by removing items that block lines of site data in two dimensions, particularly in combination between the total station and stadia rod.
In this scenario, with other site features such as architectural remains or several hundred points can be collected in just one day excavation units.
Accordingly, one map can be created of mapping. However, as most archaeologists can attest, that contains all the relevant geographic data about a site, no two archaeological sites are alike, especially the arid and distinct features can be added or deleted according and forested sites discussed in our case studies. The site to the purpose of the map.
Software programs such as and its features, post-depositional conditions, and the Surfer can also add other attributes to the final map, such physical environment will in large part guide specific data as scales and north arrows.
One drawback of using interpolated point data and certain gridding algorithms is that subtle topographic Mapping Software features can be flattened. For large sites, or for ones This article will also address how digital elevation data with multiple components, it may be best then to create can be manipulated to create digital maps that show the individual maps for particular areas or components if site in different configurations and views.
The specific one is interested in subtle topographic changes. Also, process of transforming raw data into a particular depending upon the interpolation technique used for the mapping format varies between software platforms and gridding processЧthe difference, for example, between will not be discussed in detail here.
Some experimentation with the gridding proprietary software supplied by, or purchased from, the process may be necessary to achieve desired results. The following two case studies will highlight map by extrapolating or interpolating the data points how digital elevation data can be collected using a collected in the field.
For example, in Surfer, Version 8 total station in different environmental settings. In Golden Software, Inc. Each archaeological believe that it is possible to create an accurate map that site, moreover, will require specific adjustments to the reflects the site as it is todayЧone that can then be used basic techniques of data collection and the creation to understand better the original layout of the mission of digital maps, and this article should accordingly be compound.
We merely hope to demonstrate the utility of Post-Depositional Factors such techniques, as well as the relative ease of creating Before we began collecting data for the map of Mission accurate plans maps through the use of a total station. In the case of Santa Catalina, mission quadrangle, leaving the adobe structure exposed the mission was founded in the homeland of Paipai- to the elements Lightfoot et al. Archaeological speaking people.
Over the course of its brief history, the and archival evidence indicates little sustained use of mission was home to several hundred native neophytes, the mission site itself after the attack of Indeed, many of whom appear to have continued certain hunting information from Mexican-period documents as well as and gathering practices.
In , the mission was burned in an In the twentieth century, the Paipai returned to Santa Indian uprising, and today, the remains of the Mission Catarina, although no households are located in the Santa Catalina are little more than low mounds where immediate vicinity of the mission.
One primary goal Two other significant disturbances are known to of creating a detailed map of the mission site, therefore, have taken place at the mission site. The first took was to aid in the mapping of mission walls and other place in when American treasure hunters dug architectural features. As McDonald and Oster Using a photograph part of his seminal investigation into the Dominican taken during the looting of the mission site, we have been missions of northern Baja California, geographer able to tentatively locate one area of disturbance in the Peveril Meigs III created a sketch map of the Santa northern corner of the mission compound, although the Catalina Mission compound Meigs ; see Fig.
The second Nevertheless, Meigs noted that he could not reproduce event occurred in during field research by a team of the mission plan accurately due to the amount of damage American archaeologists. Records of the exact locations to the walls. Today, no indications of of a site map that more accurately reflects the conditions these two disturbances are visible on the surface of the on the ground at the mission site.
Data Collection Overall, the condition of the mission site poses a The primary goal of a site map is to represent the significant challenge to accurate mapping of architectural current conditions of a particular site and to make it features.
Furthermore, looting and other more during the field stage of the mapping process. Instead, the scholarly excavations in the mission compound likely goal was to produce a detailed raster image similar to a obscured foundation remnants and room outlines.
Post map showing all of the points collected for the site map of Mission Santa Catalina. Note the combination of systematically and judgmentally collected points. The mission quadrangle itself modern disturbances and archaeological activities. The site of Mission Santa Catalina is located on a There is no standing architecture and the site is only gentle slope, with an elevation gain of roughly 5 meters sparsely covered with juniper trees and prickly pear cacti.
This was the primary reference across the mission quadrangle and adjacent areas. Using point around which the map was created. In order to fiberglass measuring tapes, a grid was established at five- mark the datum point, a centimeter-long piece of meter intervals over the area for which we planned to aluminum angle bar was driven into the ground so collect data.
Information was collected every five meters that only a few centimeters remained visible above the for areas of the site that held no architectural features surface. Once the primary datum point was established, visible on the surface. In areas where architectural the total station was set up above the aluminum marker features were present, we intensively sampled relevant and the instrument was configured.
Site plan for Mission Santa Catalina, showing topography, estimated architectural footprint, midden features, and site boundary. This was done by plotting combination of uniform and irregular sampling of survey the data points for those features, and then incorporating data Fig.
In effect, the highest points of the wall the data into the site plan map of the mission compound. Once the These data provided the basic points from which we basic outline of the mission compound was established, constructed the site map. In points so that additional two-dimensional features, order to add these features to the map, we created a post such as vehicle paths, could be included in the eventual map, which is simply a two-dimensional plotting of all the site map that we created.
Each of these was saved data points in a particular file. These points were overlain separately on the total station itself for ease of creating on top of the original contour map, and lines and polygons separate features on the map. During the collection were added to represent each feature in the resulting phase of the mapping, we also discovered a previously vector image. In the map of Mission Santa Catalina, unknown structure adjacent to the southwest wall of features such as vehicle paths, architectural remains, the mission quadrangle.
The foundation remnants of this midden deposits, geophysical survey blocks, excavation structure were flush with the modern ground surface units, and site boundaries are all part of the master digital and were consequently mapped in separately from the map and can be turned on or off as necessary.
MRN is approximately five meters tall, to create a site plan map showing the remnant architectural 30 meters long east to west, and 45 meters long north features of the site. Despite the poor preservation of the to south. Two smaller shell moundsЧMRN and architectural remains, we were able to create a plan map MRNЧare located nearby.
MRN is located of the mission quadrangle and surrounding areas from the about 20 meters north of MRN and MRN is digital elevation data we collected using the total station. All together, To do so, we created a contour map that included all of the three sites form a shell mound cluster, one of many the data points that we recorded in the field. Because the found along freshwater courses that empty into the topographic relief of the architectural remains at the site is broader San Francisco Bay area.
The resulting map provided and mapped in the early s by Nels Nelson, who the basic outline of the mission foundations, over which we circumnavigated the San Francisco Bay surveying and added lines representing the approximate location of the recording over shell mounds Nelson , As mission walls and room divisions.
Afterward, the contour part of the University of California Archaeological Survey, lines were then reset to half-meter intervals. A similar Clement Meighan excavated twelve contiguous 1.