How to Write a Summary - Beginner’s Guide & Example
Nov 23, · How to write a summary. Step 1: Read the text. You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three Step 2: Break the text down into sections. Step 3: Identify the key points in each section. Step 4: . How to Write a Summary? Read the Original Piece. The first and most important step to a well-crafted and good summary is to read the original text. Focus on reading the text Understand the Main Idea. Reread and Take Notes. Organize Your Notes. Craft a Thesis Statement.
Here are three questions you should get clear answers to before you start working on your summary:. Answering these three questions will give you a very good idea of the end result, and that is very helpful. Do you see how these two outcomes are different? This may also mean that you are allowed to use a quotation or two. How to write a paragraph summary second example is probably too short to use quotations. This step allows you to deal with the article one paragraph at a time instead of trying to swallow it whole.
Just make sure that each of your paragraph summaries is accurate. Note that if your summary goal is to write three or more paragraphs, then you should probably write more than two sentences per summarized paragraph in the second step here. If, on the other hand, your goal is one paragraph total, then one or two sentences per paragraph summary should do the job. This is why it is important for you to get totally clear on how many words you want in your final summary. And we have no other requirements.
Note that if you are writing a summary that has to contain more than one paragraph, refer to my tutorial on how to write body paragraphs. We need an article to summarize, and here it is below. Growing up, like most of his peers, Ahmad worshipped his parents. And wonderful, loving parents they were. They provided him with the best education they could buy and lavished love and attention on their only son.
As he was growing into an educated, responsible adult, they insisted that he go into the medical profession, in spite of his expressed desire of becoming a teacher. Today, Ahmad is a doctor at the NYU hospital and earns a bountiful living. His childhood dream of becoming a teacher did not materialize and became a source of a nagging sense of a lack of fulfillment. He is a successful doctor, but he is unhappy and wishes he were a teacher.
As a result, he is a successful doctor, but his unfulfilled dream of becoming a teacher haunts him. Could there be a correlation? A cursory look at the issue can be revealing. Children tend to regard their parents as gods, capable of everything except error. This misconception eventually wanes, but the process can take years or even decades.
But can parents really provide great career advice or direction, given their high authority in how to write a paragraph summary eyes of their children? One possible cause is parental pressure. Job dissatisfaction rates are appalling, and one possible cause is parental pressure. While children tend to deem their parents ultimate authorities on everything, they should take parental advice about choosing a profession with a grain of salt.
We can trim down the final result, if necessary. Psychologists claim that parents are often unconsciously guided by their own self-interest or by a false sense of security.
They want the best for the future of the family as whole, and that is often associated with a high status. In other words, it may be more important for the parents that their child make them a proud member of a community by gaining a high post or a lucrative salary. They may also consider some careers more stable and safe. Those who feel miserable at the job sooner or later find a way to escape how dilated do you need to be to give birth and end up taking a pay cut in return for higher job satisfaction.
Their desire for status and security backfires when their children change careers and take a pay cut to gain higher job satisfaction. Parents often act out of selfish yet unconscious motivations. Their desire for status and how to build a spiral staircase handrail backfires what is a kc strip steak their children change careers and take a pay cut to gain more job satisfaction.
Despite the sad statistics, not all parental career guidance is bad. Stacey is a highly paid educator who loves her job. Her parents took care to learn as much as possible about her as she was growing up and were able to guide her to an ideal career. She is now a professor of music at a university. She gets to perform and teach her beloved musical instrument — the violin. They are psychologists, and that explains a lot. Sometimes parental career advice works, and Stacey is a great example.
Unfortunately, most people cannot expect a similar outcome. We have three sentences again. Sometimes a paragraph contains more than two distinct ideas. Just write them down in a concise form. Keep moving forward. In a world where parents make such incompetent career advisors, young adults can and should consult with professionals with regards to their future. Career counselors and coaches can help a young person navigate the muddy waters of vocational decision-making.
By taking into how to get a girl to date u such considerations as personality type, passion, a gravitation towards a subject, and strengths and weaknesses, among other factors, these professionals can guide a young person towards a career that is likely to be rewarding and fulfilling. Ironically, a good income and job security are likely to follow, as well. There is an irony in this, too. Using the services of career counselors and coaches is a much better way what is chapter 13 bankruptcy decide on a career.
Ironically, this can increase the chances of higher pay and better job security. They make the bulk of your final summary paragraph, though they need some work. In this step, type all these what are the ingredients in antifreeze paragraph summaries together into a word processor, one after another. This raw summary is words long, which is perfectly within our goal.
So, we have the amount of material we need. Now, we need to take the next step. Here is something that is very important to understand about essay writing in general. An argumentative essay should proceed from general to specific. The truth is, however, that most articles you will summarize do not necessarily follow this rule. This means that you can find a specific statement, then a general one, then back to specific, and then to something irrelevant, and so on.
In other words, articles are not always examples of great academic writing. This is why the value of your summary is not only to provide a shorter version of an article but also to help the reader understand it.
To make the article easier to comprehend, your task is to arrange your summary from general to specific. This means the following:. A thesis is the main point of an article. It is the most general statement found in it. So state it upfront. The supporting points are the next most general statements. These are the other big ideas in the article, besides the main point. And examples are the most specific bits of content. They serve to illustrate the main and supporting points.
For example, we moved the example of Ahmad from the beginning of the article to the end of the section about parental pressure in career planning. We correct this by organizing the summary from general to specific. But we have one final step to take to polish the summary and make sure it flows smoothly from beginning to end.
In this step, you want to make some final edits and make this summary exemplary. To do that, execute how to write a paragraph summary following potential tweaks:. After organizing your summary from general to specific, you may or may not notice that your most general statement still does not include the whole main idea of the article.
Importantly, in most cases, you should include a statement that introduces the author of the article and possibly the article title. The title can be shortened. Simply begin your summary with this statement, substituting the subject, the name of the author, and the year of publication.
You may tweak this format depending on the citation style you use. Remember, at this stage, you just have a sequence of sentences that you spliced together in the previous steps. Now, you need to make sure that the entire summary reads smoothly.
Finally, make sure that the article summary contains no grammatical errors and no typos. In his article on parental career advice, Thompson argues that career choice is an important decision that is best made with professional rather than parental guidance.
While children tend to deem their parents as ultimate authorities on everything, they should take parental advice about choosing a profession with a grain of salt. And their advice is often self-serving, albeit unconsciously. The result is appalling rates of job dissatisfaction. Ahmad is a perfect example. He is a well-paid doctor who would rather be a teacher and enjoy his work.
She is an accomplished violinist and teacher who was guided by her psychologist parents and could not be happier as a professional. Therefore, it is better for young adults to consult with a professional in early adulthood to determine the most fulfilling career course, ironically increasing the chances of higher pay and better job security. And there you have it — a five-step approach to summarizing an article.
Jun 01, · • Write your summary in your own words; avoid copying phrases and sentences from the article unless they’re direct quotations. • Express the underlying meaning of the article, not just the superficial details. • Your summary should be about one third of the length of the original article. Your summary should include. When writing a summary, remember that it should be in the form of a paragraph. A summary begins with an introductory sentence that states the text’s title, author and main point of the text as you see it. A summary is written in your own words. A summary contains only the ideas of the original text. Writing the Summary: When writing the summary there are three main requirements: 1. The summary should cover the original as a whole. 2. The material should be presented in a neutral fashion. 3. The summary should be a condensed version of the material, presented in your own words. * * Also. do not include anything that does not appear in the original.
Last Updated: January 27, References. Stephanie Wong Ken is a writer based in Canada. This article has been viewed , times. A summary paragraph should tell the reader essential information about a larger text. You may write a summary paragraph about a short story or a novel for class. Or you may write a summary paragraph for an academic text or a scholarly article.
To get started on a summary paragraph, begin by organizing the original text into an outline. Then, create a strong opening line and craft a good summary paragraph that is short but informative. Save the rest of your summary paragraph for describing the who, what, where, when, and why of the piece of writing. To learn how to add supporting evidence to your summary, keep reading!
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Cookie Settings. Learn why people trust wikiHow. Download Article Explore this Article parts. Related Articles. Article Summary. Part 1 of Take notes on the original text. Start by reading and reviewing the original text. Mark up the original text, noting any keywords and important phrases or points. Highlight or underline any sentences that feel important to you. Note the topic sentence in the original text as well as the main idea or theme in the text.
The topic sentence will contain the main topic or idea in the text. Include any keywords, phrases, or points in the summary. You can then use these notes in your summary paragraph. Outline the main idea of the original text. Create a one to two sentence outline of the main idea or ideas of the original text. Keep the outline short and to the point. What is the main idea or theme in the text? Include several supporting examples from the text. Once you have the main idea down, identify one to three examples from the original text that support the main idea.
These could be quotes from the text or scenes in the text. You could also choose a pivotal moment or passage in the text as a supporting example. You can then refer to these examples in your summary paragraph.
Part 2 of Include the author, title and publication date. The first line of the summary paragraph should state the author, the title, and the publication date of the original text. You should also note what type of text it is, such as a novel, a short story, or an article.
This will present the reader with the most basic information about the original text right away. Use a reporting verb. Scott Fitzgerald presents Describe the main idea in the original text.
Finish the opening line by including the main theme or idea in the text. You can then include supporting points in the rest of the summary that relate back to this main theme or idea. Scott Fitzgerald presents the tragic figure of mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby through the eyes of his neighbor, Nick Carraway.
Part 3 of Answer who, what, where, and why. Consider who is being addressed or discussed in the original text. Think about what is being addressed or discussed. Mention where the text is set, if relevant. Finally, determine why the author is discussing or addressing the subject matter in the original text. You should also focus on what occurs, briefly, in the novel, where the novel takes place, and why Fitzgerald explores the lives of these two characters.
Have one to three sentences of supporting evidence. Aim to have one to three supporting points at the most, as you do not want to make the summary paragraph too long. Use events from the text as well as quotes or points in the text to support your opening line. If you are discussing a novel or short story, you may use the key events in the story as supporting points.
Use your own words to summarize the original text. Do not copy or paraphrase the original text. Use your own words in the summary. Avoid using the same language or word choice as the original text, unless you are quoting it directly.
You do not need to present an opinion or argument about the text in the summary paragraph. This can be done in a separate paragraph or section in your paper. Keep the summary short and to the point. A summary paragraph should be no longer than six to eight sentences. Once you finish a draft of the summary paragraph, read it over and revise it so it is short and to the point. Remove any sentences or phrases that seem redundant or repetitive.
You may also show the summary paragraph to a writing instructor or a friend to get feedback on it. Ask the person to make sure the summary paragraph includes the essential information about the text in a concise, clear way. Not Helpful 9 Helpful No, that's not necessary. Anyone interested in seeing references would go to the original work.
Not Helpful 13 Helpful Aiden Chester. Great question! You ought to explain what the graphs mean and how they relate to the main idea of the article they're in.
Not Helpful 11 Helpful Not necessarily, you can use past or present but it should be consistent. You should usually end a summary with a conclusion, for example: "I end my summary with my thoughts about the topic. Not Helpful 27 Helpful If you cannot summarize a subject, even if you have memorized all the facts about it, you can be absolutely sure that you have not learned it. And, if you truly learn the subject, you will still be able to summarize it months or years from now.
Not Helpful 6 Helpful 8. It depends on a couple factors. If you are summarizing a long book versus a short article, the latter will probably require less sentences. The other factor that will affect the length of your summary is its depth. Are you trying to sum up every point or just summarize the bare bones?
Again, the latter will require less sentences. Not Helpful 2 Helpful 5. I was told that the summary of an article should not include any of my own opinion on the article, its that correct? Yes, if you are simply writing a summary of the article, it should not include your own opinions. If you are writing a critique of the article, that may include your opinions. Not Helpful 1 Helpful 5.