What Did Queen Elizabeth I Do?
Mar 20, · did you know? Elizabeth I enjoyed hunting, dancing, and horseback riding well into her 60s. Elizabeth survived a bout of smallpox, which killed many in England at the time. She carried the scars the rest of her life. Elizabeth 1 wore her coronation ring on her wedding finger as a sign of her symbolic marriage to her country and subjects. Sep 11, · September 11, November 28, by Anirudh. Queen Elizabeth I ( – ) ruled over England and Ireland for a period of 44 years and days, making her the ninth longest reigning British monarch. The reign of Elizabeth I is known as the Elizabethan era and is considered as the golden age in English history.
Queen Elizabeth I was the longest-ruling queen in English history. Her two biggest accomplishments were re-establishing the Church of England and ending the war with France that was underway when she took the throne. Her year reign also saw several military victories. Elizabeth led how to get adipex from doctor people through a tumultuous time of political and religious upheaval. England was divided on religious issues when she came to the throne, and Elizabeth responded with a declaration that there was just one Jesus Christ, and that the rest of the matters concerning religious disputes at the time were trivial.
She called for the passage of the Act of Uniformity, which allowed for the creation of a common prayer book and did much to heal the religious divisions between Catholics and Puritans at the time. The defeat of the Spanish Armada under Elizabeth's rule is widely held as one of the greatest military achievements in English history.
This defeat protected England from invasion by Spain and established England as a force to be reckoned with. Elizabeth is sometimes referred to as the Virgin Queen, due to the fact that she never married or bore children. Although she had a long-time relationship with courtier Robert Dudley, Elizabeth presented the image of being married to her throne. More From Reference. What Are the Different Departments of a Bank?
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Apr 28, · Queen Elizabeth I claimed the throne in at the age of 25 and held it until her death 44 years later. Elizabeth I was born a princess but declared illegitimate through political machinations. First of all, she inherited some serious debts from her father. King Henry VIII left the English monarchy with terrible credit and a debt of ?, In order to make it easier for the Crown to. Elizabeth lay speechless on the floor for four days before her servants finally managed to settle her into bed. Elizabeth communicated her instructions for who would succeed her on the English throne with a hand gesture. By the time succession arrangements were being made, Elizabeth’s illness had robbed her of her powers of speech.
Elizabeth I , bynames the Virgin Queen and Good Queen Bess , born September 7, , Greenwich , near London, England—died March 24, , Richmond, Surrey , queen of England — during a period, often called the Elizabethan Age, when England asserted itself vigorously as a major European power in politics, commerce, and the arts. Suspicious that her half-sister would try to seize power, Mary placed Elizabeth under what amounted to constant surveillance, even jailing her in the Tower of London for a short period of time.
This broke with the policy of her predecessor and half-sister, Queen Mary I , a Catholic monarch who ruthlessly tried to eliminate Protestantism from English society. Elizabeth undertook her own campaign to suppress Catholicism in England, although hers was more moderate and less bloody than the one enacted by Mary.
Her religious policies, such as the Act of Supremacy and the Act of Uniformity, went a lot further to consolidate the power of the church under her and to regularize the practice of the faith. When Elizabeth was three years old, Henry had Anne beheaded and their marriage declared invalid, thus rendering Elizabeth an illegitimate child and removing her from the line of succession to which Parliament would later restore her.
When Elizabeth was crowned monarch in , her lack of a husband and heir became one of the defining issues for the remainder of her rule. As the end of her life approached, she forestalled the successional crisis that might otherwise have arisen by designating King James VI of Scotland as the next in line to the throne. The rule of the Tudor dynasty ended with the death of Elizabeth. For the most part, Elizabeth I was a popular queen, both during and after her lifetime.
The admiration Elizabeth I garnered had a lot to do with her skills as a rhetorician and an image-maker, which she used to style herself as a magnificent female authority figure devoted to the well-being of England and its subjects above all else.
Her public image also suffered in the last decade of her reign, when England was pressed by issues including scant harvests , unemployment , and economic inflation. The adulation bestowed upon her both in her lifetime and in the ensuing centuries was not altogether a spontaneous effusion. This political symbolism , common to monarchies, had more substance than usual, for the queen was by no means a mere figurehead. While she did not wield the absolute power of which Renaissance rulers dreamed, she tenaciously upheld her authority to make critical decisions and to set the central policies of both state and church.
The latter half of the 16th century in England is justly called the Elizabethan Age: rarely has the collective life of a whole era been given so distinctively personal a stamp. Henry had defied the pope and broken England from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church in order to dissolve his marriage with his first wife, Catherine of Aragon , who had borne him a daughter, Mary.
Before Elizabeth reached her third birthday, her father had her mother beheaded on charges of adultery and treason. Apparently, the king was undeterred by the logical inconsistency of simultaneously invalidating the marriage and accusing his wife of adultery.
The emotional impact of these events on the little girl, who had been brought up from infancy in a separate household at Hatfield, is not known; presumably, no one thought it worth recording.
What was noted was her precocious seriousness; at six years old, it was admiringly observed, she had as much gravity as if she had been Despite his capacity for monstrous cruelty, Henry VIII treated all his children with what contemporaries regarded as affection; Elizabeth was present at ceremonial occasions and was declared third in line to the throne. Under a series of distinguished tutors, of whom the best known is the Cambridge humanist Roger Ascham , Elizabeth received the rigorous education normally reserved for male heirs, consisting of a course of studies centring on classical languages, history, rhetoric , and moral philosophy.
Thus steeped in the secular learning of the Renaissance, the quick-witted and intellectually serious princess also studied theology, imbibing the tenets of English Protestantism in its formative period. Her guardian, the dowager queen Catherine Parr, almost immediately married Thomas Seymour , the lord high admiral. In January , shortly after the death of Catherine Parr, Thomas Seymour was arrested for treason and accused of plotting to marry Elizabeth in order to rule the kingdom.
Repeated interrogations of Elizabeth and her servants led to the charge that even when his wife was alive Seymour had on several occasions behaved in a flirtatious and overly familiar manner toward the young princess.
Under humiliating close questioning and in some danger, Elizabeth was extraordinarily circumspect and poised. When she was told that Seymour had been beheaded, she betrayed no emotion. This attempt, along with her unpopular marriage to the ardently Catholic king Philip II of Spain , aroused bitter Protestant opposition.
For though, as her sister demanded, she conformed outwardly to official Catholic observance, she inevitably became the focus and the obvious beneficiary of plots to overthrow the government and restore Protestantism.
Two months later, after extensive interrogation and spying had revealed no conclusive evidence of treason on her part, she was released from the Tower and placed in close custody for a year at Woodstock. The difficulty of her situation eased somewhat, though she was never far from suspicious scrutiny.
It was a sustained lesson in survival through self-discipline and the tactful manipulation of appearances. Many Protestants and Roman Catholics alike assumed that her self-presentation was deceptive, but Elizabeth managed to keep her inward convictions to herself, and in religion as in much else they have remained something of a mystery.
There is with Elizabeth a continual gap between a dazzling surface and an interior that she kept carefully concealed. Observers were repeatedly tantalized with what they thought was a glimpse of the interior, only to find that they had been shown another facet of the surface.
She learned her lesson well. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites.
Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. John S. Consultant editor for the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Top Questions. Mary I. An issue that troubled her reign for its entirety was her lack of a husband and heir, a situation which she and others realized could potentially ignite a successional crisis upon her death.
Still, she never married, perhaps because she preferred to keep power to herself. One of her biggest trials—at least in the foreign policy realm—came when Spain tried to invade England in Spanish Armada: Opening of the naval conflict.
Read more below: Religious questions and the fate of Mary, Queen of Scots. Read more below: Childhood. House of Tudor. Read more below: Elizabeth I. The Faerie Queene. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Elizabeth I, oil on panel by an unknown artist, —99; in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Load Next Page.