Ernst Haeckel, in full Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel, (born Feb. 16, , Potsdam, Prussia [Germany]—died Aug. 9, , Jena, Ger.), German zoologist and evolutionist who was a strong proponent of Darwinism and who proposed new notions of the evolutionary descent of human beings. Haeckel was a champion of Darwin, but he also embraced the pre-Darwinian notion that life formed a series of successively higher forms, with embryos of higher forms "recapitulating" the lower ones. Haeckel believed that, over the course of time, evolution added new stages to produce new life forms.
There will be no changes to other Yahoo properties or services, or your Yahoo account. You can find more information about the Yahoo Answers shutdown and how to download your data on this help page. The work I'm used to seeing by him was all watercolor. Or lithographs which probably began as watercolors. Now I've come up with a page of drawings it looks too linear for charcoal or chalk. I have no doubt he used pen -- because drawing was a part of the curriculum for everyone who was educated back then -- and pencil.
He probably worked with engravers of course but they wouldn't have used charcoal because transferring the drawing would have been too much of a nightmare. In teaching science it is just as important in learning failed hypothesis because that is how science progresses. By showing hypothesis that where proved wrong students can see how the scientific process works and students are then shown the evidence that was come up by other scientists that showed why that hypothesis was inaccurate.
Learning all aspects of science are equally important, we are not embarrassed about failed hypothesis. In fact we welcome them because we learn more from them and it is important that students learn this process. Answer Save. Favourite answer.
What medium did Ernst Haeckel work in? Answer asap. Mak mezu. Still have questions? Get answers by how to remove price pfister bathroom faucet now.
Who was Ernst Haeckel? Ernst Haeckel was a renowned German biologist, naturalist, physician, philosopher and artist who identified many new species of living beings and gave names to . Aug 03, · One scientist who recorded his findings with drawings is Ernst Heinrich Haeckel, a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, and physician. Made during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, his brilliantly colorful and highly stylized drawings, watercolors, and sketches reveal how different forms of plant life appear under the microscope. Apr 05, · The science was named by German biologist Ernst Haeckel (), who introduced the term in several works in the s and s, first in German and then in English, inspiring others to develop the science.
The published artwork of Haeckel includes over detailed, multi-colour illustrations of animals and sea creatures , collected in his Kunstformen der Natur "Art Forms of Nature". Haeckel was also a promoter of scientific racism  and embraced the idea of Social Darwinism. In Haeckel attained a doctorate in medicine, and afterwards he received the license to practice medicine.
The occupation of physician appeared less worthwhile to Haeckel after contact with suffering patients. Ernst Haeckel studied under Karl Gegenbaur at the University of Jena for three years, earning a habilitation in comparative anatomy in , before becoming a professor of zoology at Jena, where he remained for 47 years, from to Between and Haeckel worked on many phyla, such as radiolarians , poriferans sponges and annelids segmented worms.
In , his beloved first wife, Anna Sethe, died. Haeckel dedicated some species of jellyfish of particular beauty such as Desmonema annasethe to his unforgettable wife.
On 17 October he arrived in London. Over the next few days he met Charles Lyell , and visited Thomas Huxley and family at their home. Their son Walter was born in , their daughters Elizabeth in and Emma in Haeckel retired from teaching in , and in he withdrew from the Evangelical Church of Prussia.
On the occasion of his 80th birthday celebration he was presented with a two-volume work entitled Was wir Ernst Haeckel verdanken What We Owe to Ernst Haeckel , edited at the request of the German Monistenbund by Heinrich Schmidt of Jena.
Haeckel's wife, Agnes, died in , and he became substantially frailer, breaking his leg and arm. Haeckel became the most famous proponent of Monism in Germany. Haeckel's affinity for the German Romantic movement , coupled with his acceptance of a form of Lamarckism , influenced his political beliefs. Rather than being a strict Darwinian , Haeckel believed that the characteristics of an organism were acquired through interactions with the environment and that ontogeny reflected phylogeny.
He saw the social sciences as instances of "applied biology", and that phrase was picked up and used for Nazi propaganda. However, Haeckel's books were banned by the Nazi Party, which refused Monism and Haeckel's freedom of thought. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that Haeckel had often overtly recognized the great contribution of educated Jews to the German culture.
Haeckel was a zoologist , an accomplished artist and illustrator, and later a professor of comparative anatomy. Although Haeckel's ideas are important to the history of evolutionary theory , and although he was a competent invertebrate anatomist most famous for his work on radiolaria , many speculative concepts that he championed are now considered incorrect. For example, Haeckel described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that have never been found.
He was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology. He also proposed the kingdom Protista  in His chief interests lay in evolution and life development processes in general, including development of nonrandom form, which culminated in the beautifully illustrated Kunstformen der Natur Art forms of nature.
Haeckel did not support natural selection , rather believing in Lamarckism. His concept of recapitulation has been refuted in the form he gave it now called "strong recapitulation" , in favour of the ideas first advanced by Karl Ernst von Baer. The strong recapitulation hypothesis views ontogeny as repeating forms of adult ancestors, while weak recapitulation means that what is repeated and built upon is the ancestral embryonic development process.
Haeckel introduced the concept of heterochrony , the change in timing of embryonic development over the course of evolution. Haeckel was a flamboyant figure, who sometimes took great, non-scientific leaps from available evidence.
At that time, no remains of human ancestors had yet been identified. He described these theoretical remains in great detail and even named the as-yet unfound species, Pithecanthropus alalus , and instructed his students such as Richard and Oskar Hertwig to go and find it. These remains are among the oldest hominid remains ever found. Dubois classified Java Man with Haeckel's Pithecanthropus label, though they were later reclassified as Homo erectus.
Some scientists of the day suggested  Dubois' Java Man as a potential intermediate form between modern humans and the common ancestor we share with the other great apes. The current consensus of anthropologists is that the direct ancestors of modern humans were African populations of Homo erectus possibly Homo ergaster , rather than the Asian populations exemplified by Java Man and Peking Man.
Ironically, a new human species, Homo floresiensis , a dwarf human type, has recently been discovered in the island of Flores. The creationist polygenism of Samuel George Morton and Louis Agassiz , which presented human races as separately created species , was rejected by Charles Darwin , who argued for the monogenesis of the human species and the African origin of modern humans. In contrast to most of Darwin's supporters, Haeckel put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist August Schleicher , in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen German : proto-humans , which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors.
These separate languages had completed the transition from animals to man, and under the influence of each main branch of languages, humans had evolved — in a kind of Lamarckian use-inheritance — as separate species, which could be subdivided into races. From this, Haeckel drew the implication that languages with the most potential yield the human races with the most potential, led by the Semitic and Indo-Germanic groups, with Berber, Jewish, Greco-Roman and Germanic varieties to the fore.
We must mention here one of the most important results of the comparative study of languages, which for the Stammbaum of the species of men is of the highest significance, namely that human languages probably had a multiple or polyphyletic origin. Human language as such probably developed only after the species of speechless Urmenschen or Affenmenschen German : ape-men had split into several species or kinds.
With each of these human species, language developed on its own and independently of the others. At least this is the view of Schleicher, one of the foremost authorities on this subject.
If one views the origin of the branches of language as the special and principal act of becoming human, and the species of humankind as distinguished according to their language stem, then one can say that the different species of men arose independently of one another.
Haeckel's view can be seen as a forerunner of the views of Carleton Coon , who also believed that human races evolved independently and in parallel with each other.
These ideas eventually fell from favour. Haeckel also applied the hypothesis of polygenism to the modern diversity of human groups. He became a key figure in social darwinism and leading proponent of scientific racism , stating for instance: . The Caucasian, or Mediterranean man Homo Mediterraneus , has from time immemorial been placed at the head of all the races of men, as the most highly developed and perfect.
For the most important varieties of this species, which are moreover the most eminent actors in what is called "Universal History", first rose to a flourishing condition on the shores of the Mediterranean. This species alone with the exception of the Mongolian has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilisation which seems to raise men above the rest of nature.
Haeckel divided human beings into ten races, of which the Caucasian was the highest and the primitives were doomed to extinction.
In his Ontogeny and Phylogeny Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould wrote: "[Haeckel's] evolutionary racism; his call to the German people for racial purity and unflinching devotion to a 'just' state; his belief that harsh, inexorable laws of evolution ruled human civilization and nature alike, conferring upon favored races the right to dominate others In the same line of thought, historian Daniel Gasman states that Haeckel's ideology stimulated the birth of Fascist ideology in Italy and France.
However, Robert J. Richards notes: "Haeckel, on his travels to Ceylon and Indonesia, often formed closer and more intimate relations with natives, even members of the untouchable classes, than with the European colonials.
Haeckel claimed the origin of humanity was to be found in Asia: he believed that Hindustan Indian subcontinent was the actual location where the first humans had evolved. Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa.
Haeckel later claimed that the missing link was to be found on the lost continent of Lemuria located in the Indian Ocean. He believed that Lemuria was the home of the first humans and that Asia was the home of many of the earliest primates ; he thus supported that Asia was the cradle of hominid evolution. Haeckel also claimed that Lemuria connected Asia and Africa, which allowed the migration of humans to the rest of the world.
When Haeckel was a student in the s he showed great interest in embryology , attending the rather unpopular lectures twice and in his notes sketched the visual aids: textbooks had few illustrations, and large format plates were used to show students how to see the tiny forms under a reflecting microscope, with the translucent tissues seen against a black background. Developmental series were used to show stages within a species, but inconsistent views and stages made it even more difficult to compare different species.
It was agreed by all European evolutionists that all vertebrates looked very similar at an early stage, in what was thought of as a common ideal type, but there was a continuing debate from the s between the Romantic recapitulation theory that human embryos developed through stages of the forms of all the major groups of adult animals, literally manifesting a sequence of organisms on a linear chain of being , and Karl Ernst von Baer 's opposing view, stated in von Baer's laws of embryology , that the early general forms diverged into four major groups of specialised forms without ever resembling the adult of another species, showing affinity to an archetype but no relation to other types or any transmutation of species.
Despite the significance to ideas of transformism, this was not really polite enough for the new popular science writing, and was a matter for medical institutions and for experts who could make their own comparisons.
Darwin's On the Origin of Species , which made a powerful impression on Haeckel when he read it in , was very cautious about the possibility of ever reconstructing the history of life, but did include a section reinterpreting von Baer's embryology and revolutionising the field of study, concluding that "Embryology rises greatly in interest, when we thus look at the embryo as a picture, more or less obscured, of the common parent-form of each great class of animals.
He used morphology to reconstruct the evolutionary history of life , in the absence of fossil evidence using embryology as evidence of ancestral relationships. He invented new terms, including ontogeny and phylogeny , to present his evolutionised recapitulation theory that "ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny". The two massive volumes sold poorly, and were heavy going: with his limited understanding of German, Darwin found them impossible to read.
Haeckel's publisher turned down a proposal for a "strictly scholarly and objective" second edition. Haeckel's aim was a reformed morphology with evolution as the organising principle of a cosmic synthesis unifying science, religion, and art. He was giving successful "popular lectures" on his ideas to students and townspeople in Jena , in an approach pioneered by his teacher Rudolf Virchow.
In the Spring of that year he drew figures for the book, synthesising his views of specimens in Jena and published pictures to represent types. After publication he told a colleague that the images "are completely exact, partly copied from nature, partly assembled from all illustrations of these early stages that have hitherto become known". There were various styles of embryological drawings at that time, ranging from more schematic representations to "naturalistic" illustrations of specific specimens.
Haeckel believed privately that his figures were both exact and synthetic, and in public asserted that they were schematic like most figures used in teaching. The images were reworked to match in size and orientation, and though displaying Haeckel's own views of essential features, they support von Baer's concept that vertebrate embryos begin similarly and then diverge. Relating different images on a grid conveyed a powerful evolutionary message.
As a book for the general public, it followed the common practice of not citing sources. The book sold very well, and while some anatomical experts hostile to Haeckel's evolutionary views expressed some private concerns that certain figures had been drawn rather freely, the figures showed what they already knew about similarities in embryos.
Though he made no suggestion that embryo illustrations should be directly based on specimens, to him the subject demanded the utmost "scrupulosity and conscientiousness" and an artist must "not arbitrarily model or generalise his originals for speculative purposes" which he considered proved by comparison with works by other authors.
In particular, "one and the same, moreover incorrectly interpreted woodcut, is presented to the reader three times in a row and with three different captions as [the] embryo of the dog, the chick, [and] the turtle".
He accused Haeckel of "playing fast and loose with the public and with science", and failing to live up to the obligation to the truth of every serious researcher. Haeckel responded with angry accusations of bowing to religious prejudice, but in the second edition changed the duplicated embryo images to a single image captioned "embryo of a mammal or bird". In Haeckel made the excuse that this "extremely rash foolishness" had occurred in undue haste but was "bona fide", and since repetition of incidental details was obvious on close inspection, it is unlikely to have been intentional deception.
The revised second edition of 1, copies attracted more attention, being quickly followed by further revised editions with larger print runs as the book became a prominent part of the optimistic, nationalist, anticlerical "culture of progress" in Otto von Bismarck 's new German Empire.
The similarity of early vertebrate embryos became common knowledge, and the illustrations were praised by experts such as Michael Foster of the University of Cambridge. Later in , Haeckel's simplified embryology textbook Anthropogenie made the subject into a battleground over Darwinism aligned with Bismarck's Kulturkampf "culture struggle" against the Catholic Church.
Haeckel took particular care over the illustrations, changing to the leading zoological publisher Wilhelm Engelmann of Leipzig and obtaining from them use of illustrations from their other textbooks as well as preparing his own drawings including a dramatic double page illustration showing "early", "somewhat later" and "still later" stages of 8 different vertebrates. Though Haeckel's views had attracted continuing controversy, there had been little dispute about the embryos and he had many expert supporters, but Wilhelm His revived the earlier criticisms and introduced new attacks on the illustrations.
While it has been widely claimed that Haeckel was charged with fraud by five professors and convicted by a university court at Jena, there does not appear to be an independently verifiable source for this claim. It was later said that "there is evidence of sleight of hand" on both sides of the feud between Haeckel and Wilhelm His.
Richards , in a paper published in , defends the case for Haeckel, shedding doubt against the fraud accusations based on the material used for comparison with what Haeckel could access at the time. In the United States, Mount Haeckel , a 13, ft 4, m summit in the Eastern Sierra Nevada , overlooking the Evolution Basin, is named in his honour, as is another Mount Haeckel , a 2, m 9, ft summit in New Zealand ; and the asteroid Haeckel.
In Jena he is remembered with a monument at Herrenberg erected in ,  an exhibition at Ernst-Haeckel-Haus,  and at the Jena Phyletic Museum , which continues to teach about evolution and share his work to this day. The ratfish, Harriotta haeckeli is named in his honor.