9 rows · IDENTIFICATION: Sodium carbonate is a white crystalline powder or grayish-white lumps. It is also. Sodium carbonate is used in industry in the manufacture of glass. It is also used as detergent booster to soften hard water and as a household cleaner. It is mildly basic in strength. The chemical formula for sodium carbonate is Na 2 CO 3. The molecular mass or molar mass of sodium carbonate is g/mol.
This is again an inorganic compound that can be used as the moderate base and it is also named as washing soda too. The chemical structure of the compound is given below. The chemical formula for the compound is Na2CO3 with a molecular weight of This is an ionic compound made up of carbonic acid. When you will look at the chemical structure of compound carefully, it has two sodium cations and one carbonate anion.
The compound has a crystalline heptahydrate structure. The natural occurrence of the compound can be felt in minerals in the form of hydrate salts and it is usually available in the dry regions across worldwide. How to hard reset samsung phones compound can be prepared by chemical reaction commercially by two different methods. The first popular method is cargonate of mineral deposits of sodium carbonate ions that is taken as the primary formulation technique in the Carbonaye.
In the other technique, the product is prepared by the Solvay process where sodium chloride reacts with ammonia to form sodium bicarbonate that can be heated again to form the sodium carbonate. The product is a white crystalline powder having a density of 2. It is acidic in nature and a strong base too. It could react violently with acids when heated at high temperatures, it further transforms to fumes of Na2O. Majorly, the compound is used as the water softener, and the food processing aid, swimming pool chemical, pH modifier, or electrolyte etc.
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Apr 08, · Chemical Formula of Sodium Carbonate – Na2CO3 Its decahydrate form is called washing soda. Chemical formula of washing soda is Na2COH2O Common Name of Sodium Carbonate – Sodium carbonate is the chemical name (or IUPAC name) of the compound Na2CO3. Dec 02, · The chemical formula for the compound is Na2CO3 with a molecular weight of g/mol. Sodium Carbonate chemical Structure This is an ionic compound made up of carbonic acid. When you will look at the chemical structure of compound carefully, it has two sodium cations and one carbonate anion.
Sodium carbonate , Na 2 CO 3 , also known as washing soda , soda ash and soda crystals is the inorganic compound with the formula Na 2 CO 3 and its various hydrates. All forms are white, water-soluble salts that yield moderately alkaline solutions in water. Historically it was extracted from the ashes of plants growing in sodium-rich soils. Because the ashes of these sodium-rich plants were noticeably different from ashes of wood once used to produce potash , sodium carbonate became known as "soda ash.
Sodium carbonate is obtained as three hydrates and as the anhydrous salt:. The decahydrate is formed from water solutions crystallizing in the temperature range Other hydrates have been reported, e. Soda ash is dissolved in water and crystallized to get washing soda. Sodium carbonate serves as a flux for silica , lowering the melting point of the mixture to something achievable without special materials. This "soda glass" is mildly water-soluble, so some calcium carbonate is added to the melt mixture to make the glass insoluble.
Bottle and window glass soda-lime glass is made by melting such mixtures of sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and silica sand silicon dioxide SiO 2. When these materials are heated, the carbonates release carbon dioxide. In this way, sodium carbonate is a source of sodium oxide. Soda-lime glass has been the most common form of glass for centuries. Hard water contains dissolved compounds, usually calcium or magnesium compounds. Sodium carbonate is used for removing temporary and permanent hardness of water.
These ions form insoluble solid precipitates upon treatment with carbonate ions:. The water is softened because it no longer contains dissolved calcium ions and magnesium ions. Sodium carbonate is a food additive E used as an acidity regulator, anticaking agent, raising agent, and stabilizer. It is used in the production of snus to stabilize the pH of the final product.
Sodium carbonate is used in the production of sherbet powder. The cooling and fizzing sensation results from the endothermic reaction between sodium carbonate and a weak acid, commonly citric acid , releasing carbon dioxide gas, which occurs when the sherbet is moistened by saliva. In China, it is used to replace lye-water in the crust of traditional Cantonese moon cakes , and in many other Chinese steamed buns and noodles.
In cooking, it is sometimes used in place of sodium hydroxide for lyeing , especially with German pretzels and lye rolls. These dishes are treated with a solution of an alkaline substance to change the pH of the surface of the food and improve browning.
Sodium carbonate is corrosive to aluminum cookware, utensils and foil. Sodium carbonate is also used as a relatively strong base in various fields. As a common alkali, it is preferred in many chemical processes because it is cheaper than sodium hydroxide and far safer to handle. Its mildness especially recommends its use in domestic applications.
For example, it is used as a pH regulator to maintain stable alkaline conditions necessary for the action of the majority of photographic film developing agents. It is also a common additive in swimming pools and aquarium water to maintain a desired pH and carbonate hardness KH.
In dyeing with fiber-reactive dyes, sodium carbonate often under a name such as soda ash fixative or soda ash activator is used to ensure proper chemical bonding of the dye with cellulose plant fibers, typically before dyeing for tie dyes , mixed with the dye for dye painting , or after dyeing for immersion dyeing.
It is also used in the froth flotation process to maintain a favourable pH as a float conditioner besides CaO and other mildly basic compounds. Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO 3 or baking soda, also a component in fire extinguishers, is often generated from sodium carbonate. In a related reaction, sodium carbonate is used to make sodium bisulfite NaHSO 3 , which is used for the "sulfite" method of separating lignin from cellulose. This reaction is exploited for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases in power stations:.
This application has become more common, especially where stations have to meet stringent emission controls. Sodium carbonate is used by the cotton industry to neutralize the sulfuric acid needed for acid delinting of fuzzy cottonseed. Sodium carbonate is used by the brick industry as a wetting agent to reduce the amount of water needed to extrude the clay.
In casting, it is referred to as "bonding agent" and is used to allow wet alginate to adhere to gelled alginate. Sodium carbonate is used in toothpastes, where it acts as a foaming agent and an abrasive, and to temporarily increase mouth pH. Sodium carbonate is also used in the processing and tanning of animal hides. Sodium carbonate is soluble in water, and can occur naturally in arid regions, especially in mineral deposits evaporites formed when seasonal lakes evaporate. Deposits of the mineral natron have been mined from dry lake bottoms in Egypt since ancient times, when natron was used in the preparation of mummies and in the early manufacture of glass.
The anhydrous mineral form of sodium carbonate is quite rare and called natrite. Sodium carbonate also erupts from Ol Doinyo Lengai , Tanzania's unique volcano, and it is presumed to have erupted from other volcanoes in the past, but due to these minerals' instability at the earth's surface, are likely to be eroded.
All three mineralogical forms of sodium carbonate, as well as trona , trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, are also known from ultra-alkaline pegmatitic rocks , that occur for example in the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Extraterrestrially, known sodium carbonate is rare. Deposits have been identified as the source of bright spots on Ceres , interior material that has been brought to the surface.
Large natural deposits found in , such as the one near Green River, Wyoming , have made mining more economical than industrial production in North America. There are important reserves of trona in Turkey; two million tons of soda ash have been extracted from the reserves near Ankara.
It is also mined from some alkaline lakes such as Lake Magadi in Kenya by dredging. Hot saline springs continuously replenish salt in the lake so that, provided the rate of dredging is no greater than the replenishment rate, the source is fully sustainable. Several " halophyte " salt-tolerant plant species and seaweed species can be processed to yield an impure form of sodium carbonate, and these sources predominated in Europe and elsewhere until the early 19th century.
The land plants typically glassworts or saltworts or the seaweed typically Fucus species were harvested, dried, and burned. The ashes were then " lixivated " washed with water to form an alkali solution. This solution was boiled dry to create the final product, which was termed "soda ash"; this very old name refers derives from the Arabic word soda , in turn applied to salsola soda , one of the many species of seashore plants harvested for production.
The sodium carbonate concentration in soda ash varied very widely, from 2—3 percent for the seaweed-derived form " kelp " , to 30 percent for the best barilla produced from saltwort plants in Spain. Plant and seaweed sources for soda ash, and also for the related alkali " potash ", became increasingly inadequate by the end of the 18th century, and the search for commercially viable routes to synthesizing soda ash from salt and other chemicals intensified.
In , the French chemist Nicolas Leblanc patented a process for producing sodium carbonate from salt, sulfuric acid , limestone , and coal. In the first step, sodium chloride is treated with sulfuric acid in the Mannheim process. This reaction produces sodium sulfate salt cake and hydrogen chloride :. The salt cake and crushed limestone calcium carbonate was reduced by heating with coal.
First is the carbothermic reaction whereby the coal, a source of carbon , reduces the sulfate to sulfide :. The second stage is the reaction to produce sodium carbonate and calcium sulfide :. This mixture is called black ash.
The soda ash is extracted from the black ash with water. Evaporation of this extract yields solid sodium carbonate. This extraction process was termed lixivating. The hydrochloric acid produced by the Leblanc process was a major source of air pollution, and the calcium sulfide byproduct also presented waste disposal issues.
However, it remained the major production method for sodium carbonate until the late s. In , the Belgian industrial chemist Ernest Solvay developed a method to make sodium carbonate by first reacting sodium chloride , ammonia , water, and carbon dioxide to generate sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride : .
The resulting sodium bicarbonate was then converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, releasing water and carbon dioxide:. Meanwhile, the ammonia was regenerated from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating it with the lime calcium oxide left over from carbon dioxide generation:. The Solvay process recycles its ammonia. It consumes only brine and limestone, and calcium chloride is its only waste product.
The process is substantially more economical than the Leblanc process, which generates two waste products, calcium sulfide and hydrogen chloride.
The Solvay process quickly came to dominate sodium carbonate production worldwide. The second step of the Solvay process, heating sodium bicarbonate, is used on a small scale by home cooks and in restaurants to make sodium carbonate for culinary purposes including pretzels and alkali noodles.
This process was developed by Chinese chemist Hou Debang in the s. The earlier steam reforming byproduct carbon dioxide was pumped through a saturated solution of sodium chloride and ammonia to produce sodium bicarbonate by these reactions:.
Due to this temperature-dependent solubility difference and the common-ion effect , ammonium chloride is precipitated in a sodium chloride solution. The byproduct ammonium chloride can be sold as a fertilizer. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical compound. Not to be confused with Sodium bicarbonate baking soda , a similar compound.
Disodium carbonate. Soda ash, washing soda, soda crystals, sodium trioxocarbonate. CAS Number. Interactive image. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. Solubility in water. Refractive index n D. Crystal structure. Space group. Point group. Lattice constant. Coordination geometry.