Flag of England
2 days ago · flag of a constituent unit of the United Kingdom, flown subordinate to the Union Jack, that consists of a white field (background) with a red cross known as the Cross of St. George.. The origin of the flag, its association with St. George (the patron saint of England), and its adoption by England all lack thorough and clear documentation. At the Church of St. George in Fordington, England. England’s flag is represented by a red cross set on a white background.
The origin of the flag, its association with St. George the patron saint of Englandand its adoption by England all lack thorough and clear documentation. At the Church of St. George in Fordington, Englandthere is a sculpture of St.
George on a horse leading the Crusaders to victory at the Battle of Antioch June ; his flag bears a cross. It is known that English Crusaders used a red flag with a white cross about Another record, dating fromattests that a red Cross of St. George on white was used for pennants flown by the troops of King Edward I. The same flag, referred to as the Banner of Victory, was early shown in artistic representations of Christ; the flag was only later attributed to St.
George in his role as patron saint of soldiers. Some evidence suggests that a flag of this design flew on English ships in the late 13th century. George today continues to play an important symbolic role, although when England and Scotland joined to form Great Britain in their flags lost individual international status.
See also Scotland, flag of. Flag of England flag of a constituent unit of the United Kingdom. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Author of Flags and Arms Across the World and others. See Article History. Whitney Smith Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. United How to use social security numberisland country located off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe.
The United Kingdom comprises the whole of the island of Great Britain—which contains England, Wales, and Scotland—as well as the northern portion of the island of Ireland. The name Britain is sometimes used what is the standard size refer to the United…. George EnglandSt.
Andrew Scotlandand St. Patrick Ireland. Initially the Union Flag was called a jack only when it was flown at the bowsprit of British naval vessels, but it was commonly called the Union…. George; feast day April 23early Christian martyr who during the Middle Ages became an ideal of martial valour and selflessness. He is the patron saint of England and of Georgia and is venerated as one of the 14 Auxiliary….
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Senegal and Mali
The flag of Genoa, a city in Italy, is exactly the same as that of England. The flag of England is a white rectangle with a red cross separating it into four equal parts. The flag has a proportion of , which means that the width of the flag is 5x if the height of the flag is 3x. England, as other people have said, only has one flag, the red on white cross of St George. The United Kingdom as a whole has the eye-watering bunch of multi-coloured stripes known as the Union Flag or Union Jack. Scotland, however, does have two flags. The flag of Scotland features a white X-shaped cross representing the Cross of Saint Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, on a blue field. The flag of Scotland is one of the oldest flags in the world, traditionally dating back to the 9th Century, and is the oldest national flag still in modern use.
The association of the red cross as an emblem of England can be traced back to the Late Middle Ages , and it was increasingly used alongside the Royal Banner in the wake of the English Reformation , especially as a maritime flag. It was used as a component in the design of the Union Jack in It has been widely used since the s, specifically at national sporting events, especially during England's national football team's season.
It is thus not clear at what point the English exchanged the white cross for the red-on-white one. There was a historiographical tradition claiming that Richard the Lionheart himself adopted both the flag and the patron saint from the Republic of Genoa at some point during his crusade. This idea can be traced to the Victorian era ,  Perrin refers to it as a "common belief", and it is still popularly repeated today even though it cannot be substantiated as historical.
Red crosses seem to have been used as a distinguishing mark worn by English soldiers from the reign of Edward I s ,  or perhaps slightly earlier, in the Battle of Evesham of , using a red cross on their uniforms to distinguish themselves from the white crosses used by the rebel barons at the Battle of Lewes a year earlier.
By , there was also a greater "banner of St George", but not yet in a prominent function; the king used it among several banners of saints alongside the royal banner. The Wilton Diptych from the late s shows a swallow-tailed St George cross flag held by an angel in between King Richard II accompanied by royal saints Kings Edward the Confessor and Edmund the Martyr and a scene of the Virgin and Child flanked by angels wearing Richard's own heraldic devices.
St George's Day was considered a "double major feast" from ,  but George was still eclipsed by his "rivals" Saints Edward and Edmund. He finally rose to the position of the primary patron saint of England during the English Reformation , with the revised prayer book of , when all religious flags, including all saints' banners except for his were abolished. In the 19th century, it became desirable for all nations of Europe and later worldwide to identify a national flag.
The observation that the Cross of St George is the "national flag of England" as opposed to the Union Flag being the flag of all of the United Kingdom was made in the context of Irish irredentism , as noted by G. Chesterton in ,.
The flag of England is one of the key components of the Union Flag. The Union Flag has been used in a variety of forms since the proclamation by Orders in Council ,   when the flags of Scotland and England were first merged to symbolise the Union of the Crowns. In Scotland, and in particular on Scottish vessels at sea, historical evidence suggests that a separate design of Union Flag was flown to that used in England.
George and St. The Saint George's Cross. The flag of the City of London is based on the English flag, having a centred St George's Cross on a white background, with a red sword in the upper hoist canton the top left quarter.
The sword is believed to represent the sword that beheaded Saint Paul who is the patron saint of the city. In addition to the United Kingdom, several countries in the Commonwealth of Nations also have variants of the White Ensign with their own national flags in the canton, with the St George's Cross sometimes being replaced by a naval badge.
Churches belonging to the Church of England unless for special reasons another flag is flown by custom may fly St George's Cross. The correct way since an order from the Earl Marshal in is for the church to fly the St George's cross, with the arms of the diocese in the left-hand upper corner of the flag. The flag is also seen during other sporting events in which England competes, for example during England Cricket matches the Cricket World Cup and The Ashes , during Rugby Union matches  and in football.
Before , most of the flags waved by supporters were Union Flags. It is now observed that most are England flags. As the national flag of England, the St George's cross is also used in English nationalism in conscious distinction from the Union Flag.
This is parallel to the use of the flag of Scotland as distinct from the Union Flag in Scottish nationalism. While the flag of Scotland has been officially defined by the Scottish Parliament in , the flag of England does not figure in any official legislation, and its use by English nationalists was for some time limited to the "far-right", notably the British National Party founded Since the flag's widespread use in sporting events since the mids, the association with far-right nationalism has waned, and the flag is now frequently flown throughout the country both privately and by local authorities,  although it also remains in use by nationalist groups such as the English Defence League founded Due to the spread of the British Empire , the flag of England is currently, and was formerly used on various flags and coats of arms of different countries , states and provinces throughout the territories of the British Empire.
The St George's Cross is also used as the city flag of some northern Italian cities, such as Milan and Bologna and other countries such as Georgia. Flag of the Anglican Church of Canada. Flag of the Hudson's Bay Company — Flag of Alderney , Guernsey.
Flag of Herm , Guernsey. Flag of Sark , Guernsey. Queen Elizabeth II's personal Australian flag. Flag of the East India Company — Queen Elizabeth II's personal Jamaican flag. Flag of the Loyalist Volunteer Force. Flag of New South Wales , Australia. Ulster Banner Northern Ireland. Former flag of the Governor of Northern Ireland.
Flag of the Loyal Orange Institution of Victoria. Flag of the Governor of Saint Helena. Flag of the United Tribes of New Zealand. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. National flag. Not to be confused with Union Jack. Further information: Flag of the Kingdom of Great Britain. See also: Saint George's Cross. Flag of Alberta. Flag of Canada — Flag of Manitoba. Flag of Montreal , Quebec. Flag of Ontario. Flag of Yukon.
Flag of Guernsey. Naval Ensign of Barbados. Flag of Fiji. Colonial Flag of Jamaica. Lower Murray River Flag.
Flag of the Orange Order. Flag of Saint Helena. Flag of New England. The same ratio is used for Scotland and Wales. It was chosen as being the closest 'standard' shape to the golden rectangle. Retrieved 20 March A streamer shall stand in the toppe of a shippe, or in the forecastle, and therein be putt no armes, but a man's conceit or device, and may be of the lengthe of twenty, forty, or sixty yards.
There are variants; in another version Richard is impressed with the Genoese at Acre. Perrin , p. The relevant passage read "The St. George's flag, a red cross on a white field, was adopted by England and the City of London in for their ships entering the Mediterranean to benefit from the protection of the Genoese fleet.
The English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege". This version was taken at face value on the website of a "Ligurian Independence Movement", presented by one Vincenzo Matteucci in an article entitled L'Inghilterra "pagava" per poter innalzare la bandiera della gloriosa Repubblica di Genova sulle sue navi! Retrieved 25 June The Battle of Agincourt: Sources and Interpretations. Boydell Press. Under the influence of the Reformation the banners of his former rivals, St Edward and St Edmund, together with all other religious flags in public use, except that of St George, entirely disappeared, and their place was taken by banners containing royal badges" W.
Perrin British Flags. Cambridge University Press. Chesterton Christendom in Dublin. London: Bloomsbury Books. ISBN Retrieved 11 April Daily Mirror.
Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 1 November Links to related articles. Flags of the United Kingdom. United Kingdom —present. England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland. Subnational flags of the United Kingdom. Belfast Ulster. Flags of Europe.