What is the Torah?
Feb 07, †Ј The word Torah literally means УinstructionФЧmeaning some sort of guidance in life. But when Jews say УTorah,Ф theyТre most likely speaking of the Five Books of Moses, the foundation of all Jewish instruction and datingescortusa.com: Tzvi Freeman. Apr 04, †Ј The Torah, Judaism's most important text, consists of the first five books of the Tanakh (also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses), the Hebrew Bible. These five booksЧwhich include the commandments (mitzvot) and the Ten Commandments Чalso comprise the first five books of the Christian Bible. The word "Torah" means Уto teach.Ф.
This is commonly known as the Written Torah. It can also mean the continued narrative from all the 24 books, from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh Chronicles. If in bound book formit is called Chumashand is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries perushim. If meant for liturgic purposes, it takes the form of a Torah scroll Sefer Torahwhich contains strictly the five books of Moses.
It can even mean the totality of Jewish teaching, culture, and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or later rabbinic writings. This is often known as the Oral Torah. The Oral Torah what is torah in judaism of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash.
According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the worldand was used as the blueprint for Creation. Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe sofer in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation. Lev The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the commonly accepted "law" gives a wrong impression.
Other translational contexts in the English language include customtheoryguidance or system. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses". This title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets.
It appears in Joshua Ч32; and Kings I Kings ; II Kings ;but it cannot be said to refer there to the entire corpus according to academic Bible criticism. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works Mal.
The Torah starts from the beginning of God's creating the worldthrough the beginnings of the people of Israeltheir descent into Egypt, and the giving of the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Mosesjust before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings religious obligations and civil laws given explicitly i. Ten Commandments or implicitly embedded in the narrative as in Exodus 12 and 13 laws of the celebration of Passover.
In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book;  and the common English names for the books are derived from the Greek Septuagint [ citation needed ] and reflect the essential theme of each book:.
The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Torah. Jacob's name is changed to Israel, and through the agency of his son Josephthe children of Israel descend into Egypt, 70 people in all with their households, and God promises them a future of greatness. Genesis ends with Israel in Egypt, ready for the coming of Moses and the Exodus.
The narrative is punctuated by a series of covenants how to get bruins playoff tickets Godsuccessively narrowing in scope from all mankind the covenant with Noah to a special relationship with one people alone Abraham and his descendants through Isaac and Jacob. The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Torah, immediately following Genesis.
The book tells how the ancient Israelites leave slavery in Egypt through the strength of Yahwehthe god who has chosen Israel as his people. Yahweh inflicts horrific harm on their captors via the legendary Plagues of Egypt.
With the prophet Moses as their leader, they journey through the wilderness to biblical Mount Sinaiwhere Yahweh promises them the land of Canaan the " Promised Land " in return for their faithfulness. Israel enters into a covenant with Yahweh who gives them their laws and instructions to build the Tabernaclethe means by which he will come from heaven and dwell with them and lead them in a holy war to possess the land, and then give them peace.
Traditionally ascribed to Moses himself, modern scholarship sees the book as initially a product of the Babylonian exile 6th century BCEfrom earlier written and oral how to dry wet plaster walls, with final revisions in the Persian post-exilic period 5th century BCE.
The Book of Leviticus begins with instructions to the Israelites on how to use the Tabernaclewhich they had just built Leviticus 1Ч How to know who checked my fb profile is followed by rules of clean and unclean Leviticus 11Ч15which includes the laws of slaughter and animals permissible to eat see also: Kashrutthe Day of Atonement Leviticus 16and various moral and ritual laws sometimes called the Holiness Code Leviticus 17Ч Leviticus 26 provides a detailed list of rewards for what is torah in judaism God's commandments and a detailed list of punishments for not following them.
Leviticus 17 establishes sacrifices at the Tabernacle as an everlasting ordinance, but this ordinance is altered in later books with the Temple being the only place in which sacrifices are allowed. The Book of Numbers is the fourth book of the Torah. Numbers begins at Mount Sinaiwhere the Israelites have received their laws and covenant from God and God has taken up residence among them in the sanctuary. The people are counted and preparations are made for resuming their march.
The Israelites begin the journey, but they "murmur" at the hardships along the way, and about the authority of Moses and Aaron. For these acts, God destroys approximately 15, of them through various means.
They arrive at the borders of Canaan and send spies into the land. Upon hearing the spies' fearful report concerning the conditions in Canaan, the Israelites refuse to take possession of it.
God condemns them to death in the wilderness until a new generation can grow up and carry out the task. The book ends with the how to play brand new me on piano generation of Israelites in the Plain of Moab ready for the crossing of the Jordan River. Numbers is the culmination of the story of Israel's exodus from oppression in Egypt and their journey to take possession of the land God promised their fathers.
As such it draws to a conclusion the themes introduced in Genesis and played out in Exodus and Leviticus: God has promised the Israelites that they shall become a great i. Numbers also demonstrates the importance of holiness, faithfulness and trust: despite God's presence and his priestsIsrael lacks faith and the possession of the land is left to a new generation.
The Book of Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Torah. Chapters 1Ч30 of the book consist of three sermons or speeches delivered to the Israelites by Moses on the plains of Moabshortly before they enter the Promised Land. The first sermon recounts the forty years of wilderness wanderings which had led to that moment, and ends with an exhortation to observe the law or teachingslater referred to as the Law of Moses ; the second reminds the Israelites of the need to follow Yahweh and the laws or teachings he has given them, on which their possession of the land depends; and the third offers the comfort that even should Israel prove unfaithful and so lose the land, with repentance all can be restored.
Presented as the words of Moses delivered before the conquest of Canaan, a broad consensus of modern scholars see its origin in traditions from Israel the northern kingdom brought south to the Kingdom of Judah in the wake of the Assyrian conquest of Aram 8th century BCE and then adapted to a program of how to get sound back on my computer reform in the time of Josiah late 7th century BCEwith the final form of the modern book emerging in the milieu of the return from the Babylonian captivity during the late 6th century BCE.
The Talmud holds that the Torah was written by Moses, with the exception of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy, describing his death and burial, being written by Joshua. By contrast, the modern scholarly consensus rejects Mosaic authorship, and affirms that the Torah has multiple authors and that its composition took place over centuries.
Throughout most of the 20th century, there was a scholarly consensus surrounding the documentary hypothesiswhich posits four independent sources, which were later compiled together by a redactor: J, the Jahwist source, E, the Elohist source, P, the Priestly sourceand D, the Deuteronomist source. The earliest of these sources, J, would have been composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BCE, with the latest source, P, being composed around the 5th century BCE.
The consensus around the documentary hypothesis collapsed in the last decades of the 20th century. Baden, among others. The majority of scholars today continue to recognize Deuteronomy as a source, with its origin in the law-code produced at the court of Josiah as described by De Wette, subsequently given a frame during the exile the speeches and descriptions at the front and back of the code to identify it as the words of Moses. Weinberg and called the "Citizen-Temple Community", proposes that the Exodus story was composed to serve the needs of a post-exilic Jewish community organised around the Temple, which acted in effect as a bank for those who belonged to it.
The Orthodox rabbinic tradition holds that the Written Torah was recorded during the following forty years,  though many non-Orthodox Jewish scholars affirm the modern scholarly consensus that the Written Torah has multiple authors and was written over centuries. The Talmud Gittin 60a presents two opinions as to how exactly the Torah was written down by Moses. One opinion holds that it was written by Moses gradually as it was dictated to him, and finished it close to his death, and the other opinion holds that Moses wrote the complete Torah in one writing close to his death, based on what was dictated to him over the years.
The Talmud Menachot 30a how to become a music video model that the last eight verses of the Torah that discuss the death and burial of Moses could not have been written by Moses, as writing it would have been a lie, and that they were written after his death by Joshua.
Abraham ibn Ezra  and Joseph Bonfils observed [ citation needed ] that phrases in those verses present information that people should only have known after the time of Moses.
Ibn Ezra hinted,  and Bonfils explicitly stated, that Joshua wrote these verses many years after the death of Moses. Other commentators  do not accept this position and maintain that although Moses did not write those eight verses it was nonetheless dictated to him and that Joshua wrote it based on instructions left by Moses, and that the Torah often describes future events, some of which have yet to occur.
All classical rabbinic views hold that the Torah was what are the parts of a house window Mosaic and of divine origin. According to Legends of the JewsGod gave Torah to the children of Israel after he approached every tribe and nation in the world, and offered them the Torah, but the latter refused it so they might have no excuse to be ignorant about it. The term often refers to the entire ceremony of removing the Torah scroll or scrolls from the arkchanting the appropriate excerpt with traditional cantillationand returning the scroll s to the ark.
It is distinct from academic Torah study. Regular public reading of the Torah was introduced by Ezra the Scribe after the return of the Jewish people from the Babylonian captivity c.
In the 19th and 20th centuries CE, new movements such as Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism have made adaptations to the practice of Torah reading, but the basic pattern of Torah reading has usually remained the same:. As a part of the morning prayer services on certain days of the week, fast days, and holidays, as well as part of the afternoon prayer services of Shabbat, Yom Kippur, and fast days, a section of the Pentateuch is read from a Torah scroll. On Shabbat Saturday mornings, a weekly section " parashah " is read, selected so that the entire Pentateuch is read consecutively each year.
What is torah in judaism division of parashot found in the modern-day Torah scrolls of all Jewish communities Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Yemenite is based upon the systematic list provided by Maimonides in Mishneh TorahLaws of Tefillin, Mezuzah and Torah Scrollschapter 8.
Maimonides based his division of the parashot for the Torah on the Aleppo Codex. Conservative and Reform synagogues may read parashot on a triennial rather than annual schedule,    On Saturday afternoons, Mondays, and Thursdays, the beginning of the following Saturday's portion is read.
On Jewish holidaysthe beginnings of each month, and fast daysspecial sections connected to the day are read. Jews observe an annual holiday, Simchat Torahto celebrate the completion and new start of the year's cycle of readings.
Torah scrolls are often dressed with a sash, a special Torah cover, various ornaments and a Keter crownalthough such customs vary among synagogues.
Congregants traditionally stand in respect when the Torah is brought out of the ark to be read, while it is being carried, and lifted, and likewise while it is returned to the ark, although they may sit during the reading itself. The Torah contains narratives, statements of law, and statements of ethics. Rabbinic tradition holds that Moses learned the whole Torah while he lived on Mount Sinai for 40 days and nights and both the Oral and the written What is torah in judaism were transmitted in parallel with each other.
Where the Torah leaves words and concepts undefined, and mentions procedures without explanation or instructions, the reader is required to seek out the missing details from supplemental sources known as the Oral Law or Oral Torah. According to classical rabbinic texts this parallel set of material was originally transmitted to Moses at Sinai, and then from Moses to Israel.
At that time it was forbidden to write and publish the oral law, as any writing would be incomplete and subject to misinterpretation and abuse. However, after exile, dispersion, and persecution, this tradition was lifted when it became apparent that in writing was the only way to ensure that the Oral Law could be preserved. Other oral traditions from the same time period not entered into the Mishnah were recorded as Baraitot external teachingand the Tosefta.
Other traditions were written down as Midrashim. After continued persecution more of the Oral Law was committed to writing. A great many more lessons, lectures and traditions only alluded to in the few hundred pages of Mishnah, became the thousands of pages now called the Gemara. Gemara is written in Aramaic, having been compiled in Babylon. The Mishnah and Gemara together are called the Talmud. The rabbis in the Land of Israel also collected their traditions and compiled them into the Jerusalem Talmud.
Since the greater number of rabbis lived in Babylon, the Babylonian Talmud has precedence should the two be in conflict.
Orthodox and Conservative branches how to bake a country cured ham Judaism accept these texts as the basis for all subsequent halakha and codes of Jewish law, which are held to be normative. Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism deny that these texts, or the Torah itself for that matter, may be used for determining normative law laws accepted as binding but accept them as the authentic and only Jewish version for understanding the Torah and its development throughout history.
Humanistic Judaism is willing to question the Torah and to disagree with it, believing that the entire Jewish experience, not just the Torah, should be the source for Jewish behavior and ethics.
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Aug 13, †Ј The Torah is the first part of the Jewish bible. It is the central and most important document of Judaism and has been used by Jews through the ages. Torah refers to . The (Hebrew for Уthe teachingsФ) is the name given to the Five Books of Moses which come at the very beginning of the Bible. These books form the basis of all Jewish law and practice. A Torah scroll is a parchment scroll on which all five books have been inscribed by a specially trained calligrapher.
These five booksЧwhich include the commandments mitzvot and the Ten Commandments Чalso comprise the first five books of the Christian Bible. It is the document that contains all of the rules by which the Jewish people structure their spiritual lives. The writings of the Torah are the most important part of the Tanakh, which also contains 39 other important Jewish texts.
The word "Tanakh" is actually an acronym. Sometimes the word "Torah" is used to describe the entire Hebrew Bible. Traditionally, each synagogue has a copy of the Torah written on a scroll that is wound around two wooden poles. This is known as a Sefer Torah and it is handwritten by a sofer scribe who must copy the text perfectly.
In modern printed form, the Torah is usually called a Chumash , which comes from the Hebrew word for the number five. The five books of the Torah begin with the creation of the world and end with the death of Moses. In Hebrew, the name of each book is derived from the first unique word or phrase that appears in that book. Bereshit is Hebrew for "in the beginning. The God of Genesis is a vengeful one; in this book, he punishes humanity with a great flood and destroys the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah.
The book ends with Joseph, the son of Jacob and the grandson of Isaac, being sold into slavery in Egypt. Shemot means "names" in Hebrew. This, the second book of the Torah, tells the story of the Israelites' bondage in Egypt, their liberation by the prophet Moses, their journey to Mount Sinai where God reveals the Ten Commandments to Moses , and their wanderings in the wilderness. The story is one of great hardship and suffering.
At first, Moses fails to convince Pharoah to free the Israelites; it is only after God sends 10 plagues including an infestation of locusts, a hailstorm, and three days of darkness that Pharoah agrees to Moses's demands. The Israelites' escape from Egypt includes the famous parting of the Red Sea and the appearance of God in a storm cloud.
Vayikra means "And He called" in Hebrew. This book, unlike the previous two, is less focused on narrating the history of the Jewish people. Instead, it deals primarily with priestly matters, offering instructions for rituals, sacrifices, and atonement. These include guidelines for the observance of Yom Kippur , the Day of Atonement, as well as rules for the preparation of food and priestly behavior. Bamidbar means "in the desert," and this book describes the wanderings of the Israelites in the wilderness as they continue their journey toward the promised land in Canaan the "land of milk and honey".
Moses takes a census of the Israelites and divides the land among the tribes. D'varim means "words" in Hebrew. This is the final book of the Torah. It recounts the end of the Israelites' journey according to Moses and ends with his death just before they enter the promised land. This book includes three sermons delivered by Moses in which he reminds the Israelites to obey the instructions of God.
Scholars believe that the Torah was written and revised by multiple authors over the course of several centuries, with the first full draft appearing in the 7th or 6th century BCE. Various additions and revisions were made over the centuries that followed. The authorship of the Torah remains unclear.
Jewish and Christian tradition state that the text was written by Moses himself with the exception of the end of Deuteronomy, which tradition states was written by Joshua. Contemporary scholars maintain that the Torah was assembled from a collection of sources by different authors over the course of about years.
Share Flipboard Email. By Ariela Pelaia. Updated April 04, It describes the creation of the world and the early history of the Israelites. The first full draft of the Torah is believed to have been completed in the 7th or 6th century BCE.
The text was revised by various authors over subsequent centuries. The Torah consists of , Hebrew letters. Cite this Article Format. Pelaia, Ariela. What Is the Torah? What Is Kabbalah? Definition and History. Gan Eden in Jewish Views of the Afterlife.