Alternative Title: Armenian massacre of Armenian Genocide, campaign of deportation and mass killing conducted against the Armenian subjects of the Ottoman Empire by the Young Turk government during World War I (–18). Armenians charge that the campaign was a deliberate attempt to destroy the Armenian people and, thus, an act of genocide. The Armenian Genocide (): Overview More information about this image Sometimes called the first genocide of the twentieth century, the Armenian genocide refers to the physical annihilation of Armenian Christian people living in the Ottoman Empire from spring through autumn
The Armenian genocide was the systematic killing and deportation of Armenians by the Turks how to make a disguised safe the Ottoman Empire. Induring World War Ileaders of the Turkish government set in motion a plan to expel and massacre Armenians.
By the early s, when the massacres and deportations finally ended, betweenand 1. Today, most historians call this event a genocide: a premeditated and systematic campaign to exterminate an entire people. However, the Turkish government still does not acknowledge the scope of these events. The Armenian people have made their home in the Caucasus region of Eurasia for some 3, years. For some of that time, the kingdom of Armenia was an independent entity: At the beginning of the 4th century A.
But for the most part, control of the region shifted from one empire to another. During the 15th century, Armenia was absorbed into the mighty Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman rulers, like most of their subjects, were Muslim. Christians had to pay higher taxes than Muslims, for example, and they had very few political and legal rights. In spite of these obstacles, the Armenian community thrived under Ottoman rule. They tended to be better educated and wealthier than their Turkish neighbors, who in turn grew to resent their success.
This resentment was compounded by suspicions that the Christian Armenians would be more loyal to Christian governments that of the Russians, for example, who shared an unstable border with Turkey than they were to the Ottoman caliphate. These suspicions grew more acute as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. In response to large scale protests by Armenians, Turkish military officials, soldiers and ordinary men sacked Armenian villages and cities and massacred their citizens.
Hundreds of thousands of Armenians were how to set up text donations on justgiving. Ina new government came to power in Turkey. According to this way of thinking, non-Turks — and especially Christian non-Turks — were a grave threat to the new state.
At the same time, Ottoman religious authorities declared a holy war against all Christians except their allies. Military leaders began to argue that the Armenians were traitors: If they thought they could win independence if the Allies were victorious, this what year did the armenian genocide end went, the Armenians would be eager to fight for the enemy.
As the war intensified, Armenians organized volunteer battalions to help the Russian army fight against the Turks in the Caucasus region. On April 24,the Armenian genocide began. That day, the Turkish government arrested and executed several hundred Armenian intellectuals.
After that, ordinary Armenians were turned out of their homes and sent on death marches through the Mesopotamian desert without food or water. Frequently, the marchers were stripped naked and forced to walk under the scorching sun until they dropped dead.
People who stopped to rest were shot. These killing squads were often made up of murderers and other ex-convicts. They drowned people in rivers, threw them off cliffs, crucified them and burned them alive. In short order, the Turkish countryside was littered with Armenian corpses.
Muslim families what is the multinational company into the homes of deported Armenians and seized their property. Though reports vary, most sources agree that there were about 2 million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire at the time of the massacre. Inwhen the genocide was over, there were justArmenians remaining in the Ottoman Empire.
After the Ottomans surrendered inthe leaders of the Young Turks fled to Germany, which promised not to prosecute them for the genocide. However, a group of Armenian nationalists devised a plan, known as Operation Nemesis, to track down and assassinate the leaders of the genocide. Ever since then, the Turkish government has denied that a genocide took place. The Armenians were an enemy force, they argue, and their slaughter was a necessary war measure.
Today, Turkey is an important ally of the United States and other Western nations, and so their governments have been slow to condemn the long-ago killings. In Marcha U. Congressional panel voted to recognize the genocide. And on October 29,the U. House of Representatives passed a resolution that recognized the Armenian genocide. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
Genocide is a term used to describe violence against members of a national, ethnic, racial or religious group with the intent to destroy the entire group. The word came into general usage only after World War II, when the full extent of the atrocities committed by the Nazi During the Rwandan genocide ofmembers of the Hutu ethnic majority in the east-central African nation of Rwanda murdered as many aspeople, mostly of the Tutsi minority.
Started by Hutu nationalists in the capital of Kigali, what does stress do to your heart genocide spread throughout the In Aprilthe government of the Yugoslav republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its independence from Yugoslavia.
Over the next several years, Bosnian Serb forces, with the backing of the Serb-dominated Yugoslav army, perpetrated atrocious crimes against Bosniak Bosnian Gold from the American River! The campaign began with a failed naval attack by British and His murder catapulted into a war across Europe that lasted until For four years, from toWorld War I raged across Europe's western and eastern fronts, after growing tensions and then the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria ignited the war.
Trench warfare and the early use of tanks, submarines and airplanes meant the In Marchduring World War IBritish and French forces launched an ill-fated naval attack on Turkish forces in the Dardanelles in northwestern Turkey, hoping to take control of the strategically vital strait separating Europe from Asia. The failure of the When World War I broke out across Europe inPresident Woodrow Wilson proclaimed the United States would remain neutral, and many Americans supported this policy of nonintervention.
However, public opinion about neutrality started to change after the sinking of the British Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Young Turks Ina new government came to power in Turkey. World War I Begins. World War I Packs. Life in a Trench. World War I Alliances. Battle of Gallipoli. Genocide Genocide is a term used to describe violence against members of a national, ethnic, racial or religious group with the intent to destroy the entire group.
Rwandan Genocide During the Rwandan genocide ofmembers of the Hutu ethnic majority in the east-central African nation of Rwanda murdered as many aspeople, mostly of the Tutsi minority. Bosnian Genocide In Aprilthe government of the Yugoslav republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina declared its independence from Yugoslavia. Dardanelles Campaign In Marchduring World War IBritish and French forces launched an ill-fated naval attack on Turkish forces in the Dardanelles in northwestern Turkey, hoping to take control of the strategically vital strait separating Europe from Asia.
and May ), and the Armenian community in eastern Asia Minor and Cilicia was massacred or deported to eliminate any domestic support for the pro-Christian tsarist enemy on the Eastern Front. Between , and 1,, Armenians were killed. These events are now widely described as a genocide of the Armenian. The Armenian genocide refers to the physical annihilation of ethnic Armenian Christian people living in the Ottoman Empire from spring through autumn There were approximately million Armenians living in the Empire. At least , and possibly as many as . Did then the Armenian Genocide end with the end of the war in or the Peace Conference in ? No, unfortunately it did not—for two major reasons. First, the perpetrators refused to acknowledge the genocide and, second, successive governments of Turkey have continued a .
The Armenian genocide refers to the physical annihilation of ethnic Armenian Christian people living in the Ottoman Empire from spring through autumn There were approximately 1. At least , and possibly as many as 1. Armenians call these events Medz Yeghern the great crime or Aghet catastrophe. The Armenian Genocide. The origin of the term genocide and its codification in international law have their roots in the mass murder of Armenians.
Lawyer Raphael Lemkin , the coiner of the word and its later champion at the United Nations, repeatedly stated that early exposure to newspaper stories about Ottoman crimes against Armenians was key to his beliefs about the need for legal protection of groups.
Ottoman authorities, supported by auxiliary troops and civilians, committed most of the murders of The government, controlled by the Committee of Union and Progress CUP; also called the Young Turks , aimed to solidify Turkish Muslim dominance in the region of eastern Anatolia by eliminating the sizeable Armenian population there.
From , the Ottomans killed large numbers of people in mass shootings; many others died during mass deportations due to starvation, dehydration, exposure, and disease.
In addition, tens of thousands of Armenian children were forcibly removed from their families and converted to Islam. Armenian Christians were one of many distinct ethnic groups in the Ottoman Empire.
In the late s, some Armenians formed political organizations seeking greater autonomy, reinforcing Ottoman doubts about the loyalty of the wider Armenian community within its borders. On October 17, , Armenian revolutionaries seized the National Bank in Constantinople, threatening to blow it up along with more than hostages unless the authorities granted Armenian regional autonomy.
Though French intervention allowed for a peaceful end to the incident, the Ottomans conducted a series of massacres. In July , a faction that called itself the Young Turks seized power in Constantinople the Ottoman capitol. The Young Turks was a group primarily composed of Balkan-born military officers and bureaucrats, which in had taken over a secret society known as the Committee of Union and Progress CUP , and reformed it into a political movement.
The Young Turks aimed to establish a liberal, secular constitutional regime that put all peoples on equal footing. They argued that non-Muslims would accept Turkish nationalism if modernization and prosperity were the result. Initially, it seemed that the new government would accommodate some Armenian social grievances.
But in spring , Armenian demonstrations for autonomy boiled over into violence. Ottoman soldiers, irregular troops, and civilians murdered as many at 20, Armenians in and around the city of Adana; up to 2, Muslims were killed by Armenians during the fighting. Between and , CUP activists veered increasingly towards a strident, nationalist vision for the Empire.
Dense areas of Armenian settlement across eastern Anatolia presented a demographic obstacle to these ambitions. Following several years of political upheaval, CUP leaders seized dictatorial power in a coup on January 23, Mass atrocities and genocide are often perpetrated within the context of war.
In anticipation of threatened Allied landings at the strategically important Gallipoli peninsula, Ottoman authorities arrested Armenian leaders in Constantinople on April 24, , and deported them east.
This roundup is commemorated today by Armenians as the beginning of the genocide. The Ottomans claimed that Armenian revolutionaries had established contact with the enemy and were preparing to facilitate a Franco-British landing.
When challenged by the Entente Powers and the then-neutral United States, they explained the deportations as a precautionary measure. Beginning in May the government expanded the deportations—regardless of distance from combat zones—marching civilians to holding camps in desert regions to the south [today: northern and eastern Syria, northern Saudi Arabia, and Iraq]. Due to the Ottoman wartime alliance with Germany, many German military officers, diplomats, and relief workers witnessed firsthand the atrocities committed against Armenians.
Their reactions ranged from horror and formal protests to, in some instances, tacit support of the Ottomans. This generation of Germans would carry the memory of these violent events with them into the s and 40s, coloring their view of actions against Jews in under the Nazis. Taking orders from the central government in Constantinople, regional officials implemented mass shootings and deportations, assisted by local civilians.
Ottoman military and security organs and their collaborators murdered the majority of Armenian men of fighting age, as well as thousands of women and children.
During forced marches through the desert, convoys of surviving elderly men, women, and children were exposed to arbitrary attacks from local officials, nomadic bands, criminal gangs, and civilians. This violence included robbery e. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians died before reaching the designated holding camps. Many were killed or abducted, others committed suicide, and vast numbers died of starvation, dehydration, exposure, or disease en route. While some civilians sought to assist the Armenian deportees, many more killed or tormented the people in the convoys.
Although the term genocide was not coined until , most scholars agree that the mass murder of Armenians fits this definition. The CUP government systematically used an emergency military situation to effect a long-term population policy aimed at strengthening Muslim Turkish elements in Anatolia at the expense of the Christian population primarily Armenians, but also Christian Assyrians.
The CUP issued instructions from Constantinople and ensured enforcement through agents in its Special Organization and local administrations. The central government also required close monitoring and data collection on the number of Armenians deported, the amount and type of housing they left behind, and the number of deportees reaching holding camps.
Initiative and coordination came from the highest levels of the CUP ruling circle. Government regulations restricted the Armenian population to no more than 10 percent in designated areas in some areas no more than two percent , required settlements be limited to 50 families, and specified they be located far from both the Baghdad rail line and from each other.
To meet these demands, local officials continued to move deportees, without adequate clothing, food, or water, back and forth across the desert under lethal sun during the day and in freezing cold at night. The deportees were regularly exposed to attacks from nomads as well as from their own guards.
Consequently, human and natural forces devastated the Armenian deportees until they reached the mandated lower population levels. This redistribution of property also provided incentive for large numbers of ordinary people to join in the assault on their neighbors.
Many in the Empire believed that Armenians were wealthy; in fact, a large proportion of Armenians were poor. In some cases, Ottoman authorities accepted conversion to Islam in exchange for the right to live or to remain in places of residence.
Though responsible for the deaths of many thousands of Armenian children, the Ottomans often sought to convert and assimilate children to Muslim and specifically Turkish society.
Ottoman authorities generally refrained from mass deportations in the cities of Istanbul and Izmir, both to hide their crimes from foreigners and to capitalize on the economic value of urban Armenians to the modernization of the Empire. We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
View the list of all donors. You are searching in English. Tags Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics. Browse A-Z Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically. For Teachers Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust. About This Site. Glossary : Full Glossary. The Armenian Genocide : In Depth. More information about this image. The Armenian Genocide The origin of the term genocide and its codification in international law have their roots in the mass murder of Armenians.
Historical Background Armenian Christians were one of many distinct ethnic groups in the Ottoman Empire. In all, at least 80, Armenians were killed between and World War I Mass atrocities and genocide are often perpetrated within the context of war. Massacres and Deportations Taking orders from the central government in Constantinople, regional officials implemented mass shootings and deportations, assisted by local civilians. Centralized Orders Although the term genocide was not coined until , most scholars agree that the mass murder of Armenians fits this definition.
Glossary Terms. Thank you for supporting our work We would like to thank Crown Family Philanthropies and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.