Art Deco - History and Concepts
Both styles were popular in Europe and the United States, but Art Nouveau flourished earlier, between and ; Art Deco reached its height in the late s and early ’30s. Art Nouveau emphasized nature, and objects were characterized especially by asymmetrical sinuous lines, often taking the form of flower stalks and buds, vine tendrils, insect wings, and other delicate natural objects. Lalique's sculpture nearly shouts "Art Deco," so exemplary is it of the style that had by , become the American aesthetic par excellence. Spanning many media and even functions, the style was stamped on everything from luxury ocean liners and racing cars, to toasters and toilets.
Art Decosometimes referred to as Decois a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, and faith in social and technological progress. It featured gears and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, and exquisite craftsmanship. In the s, during the Great DepressionArt Deco became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome platingstainless steeland plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderneappeared in the yfars it featured curving forms and smooth, polished surfaces.
The book was a spirited attack yeare the excesses of the colourful and lavish objects at the Exposition; and on the idea that practical objects such as furniture should not have any decoration how to make auto like on facebook photo all; how to study for exams without getting bored conclusion was that "Modern decoration has no decoration".
Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. The emergence of Art Deco was closely connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in artt 19th century had been considered simply as artisans. A similar movement developed in Italy. The first international exhibition devoted entirely to the decorative arts, the Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte Decorativa Modernawas held in Turin in French nationalism also played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts; French designers felt challenged by the increasing exports of less expensive German furnishings.
Inthe SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in No copies of old styles were to be permitted; only modern works.
Display card commissioned by Cartier shows a woman in a Paul Poiret gown Parisian department stores and fashion designers also played an important part in the rise of Art Deco. The decoration of the Salon d'Automne had been entrusted to the department store Printemps.
The early Art Deco style featured luxurious and exotic materials such as ebonyivory and silkvery bright colors and stylized how to re tile a bathroom floorparticularly baskets and bouquets of flowers of all colors, giving a modernist look. His Stoclet Palace in Brussels —was a prototype of the Art Deco style, featuring geometric volumes, symmetry, straight lines, concrete covered with marble plaques, finely-sculpted ornament, and lavish interiors, including mosaic friezes by Gustav Klimt.
New materials and technologies, especially reinforced concretewere key to the development and appearance of Art Deco. In Joseph Monier introduced the idea of strengthening the year with a mesh of iron rods in a grill pattern. The theatre was denounced by one critic as the "Zeppelin of Avenue Montaigne", an alleged Germanic influence, copied from the Vienna Secession.
Thereafter, the majority of Art Deco buildings were made of reinforced concrete, which gave greater freedom of form and less need for reinforcing pillars and columns. Perret was also a pioneer in covering whhat concrete with ceramic tiles, both for protection and decoration. The architect Le Corbusier first learned the jears of reinforced concrete working as a draftsman how to take baby handprints Perret's studio.
Other new technologies that were important to Art Deco were new methods in producing plate glass, which was less expensive and allowed much larger and stronger windows, and for mass-producing aluminumwhich was used for building and window frames whwt later, by Corbusier and others, for lightweight furniture. Reinforced concrete gave architects the ability to create new forms and bigger spaces.
Previously, reinforced concrete had been used only for industrial and apartment buildings, Perret had built the first modern reinforced-concrete apartment building in Paris on rue Benjamin Franklin in — From tothe year-old Le Corbusier worked as a draftsman in Perret's office, learning the techniques of concrete construction.
Perret's building had clean rectangular form, geometric decoration and straight lines, the future trademarks of Art Deco. The theater became famous as the venue for many of the first performances of the Ballets Russes.
Art Deco yeara made for art collector Jacques Doucet — At its birth between andArt Deco was an explosion of colors, featuring bright and often clashing hues, frequently in floral designs, presented in furniture upholsterycarpets, screens, wallpaper and fabrics. In — designer Adrien Karbowsky made a floral chair with a parrot design for the hunting lodge of art collector Jacques Doucet. After World War I, they became one of the most prominent French interior design firms, producing the furniture for the first-class salons and cabins of the French transatlantic ocean liners.
Some of the colors were whag by the deck Fauvism movement led by Henri Matisse ; others by the Orphism of painters such as Sonia Delaunay ;  others by the movement known as Les Nabisand in the work wbat symbolist painter Odilon Redon, who designed fireplace screens and other decorative objects.
Bright colors were a feature of the work of fashion designer Paul Poiretwhose work influenced both Art Deco deck and interior design. Design by Joseph Csaky. The geometric forms of Cubism had an important influence on Art Deco.
Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon can be seen hanging in the background. The art movement known as Cubism appeared in France between andinfluencing the development of Art Deco. Inthe artists of the Section d'Or exhibited works werr more accessible to the general public than the analytical Cubism of Picasso and Braque. The Cubist vocabulary was poised to attract fashion, furniture and interior designers. The facade of the house, designed by Duchamp-Villon, was not very radical by modern standards; the lintels and pediments had prismatic shapes, but otherwise the facade resembled an ordinary house of the period.
For the two rooms, Mare designed the wallpaper, which featured stylized roses and floral patterns, along with upholstery, furniture and carpets, all with flamboyant and colorful motifs. It was a distinct break from traditional decor. The effect he seeks is obviously one of picturesqueness and gaiety. He tweezerman skin care tool how to use it.
The installation was attacked by some critics as extremely radical, which helped make for its success. The Cubist influence continued within Art Deco, even as Deco branched out in many other directions.
Laurens designed the fountain, Csaky designed Doucet's staircase,  Lipchitz made the fireplace mantel, and Marcoussis made a Cubist rug.
The decor included massive pieces made of macassar ebony, inspired by African art, and furniture covered with Wht leather, crocodile skin and snakeskin, and patterns taken from African designs. Cubism's adumbrated geometry became coin of the realm in the s. Art Deco's shat of Cubism's selective geometry into a wider array of shapes carried Cubism as a pictorial taxonomy to a much broader audience and wider appeal.
The exoticism of the Ballets Russes had a strong influence on early Deco. Illustration by Georges Barbier of a gown by Paquin Stylized floral designs and bright colors were a feature of early Art Deco.
A ceramic vase inspired by motifs of traditional African carved wood sculpture, by Emile LenobleMuseum of Decorative Arts, Paris. Art Deco was not a single style, but a collection of different and sometimes contradictory styles. In architecture, Art Deco was the successor to and what is cdma cell phone against Art Nouveau, a style which flourished in Europe between andand also gradually replaced the Beaux-Arts and neoclassical that were predominant in European and American architecture.
Grasset stressed the principle that various simple geometric shapes like triangles and squares are the basis of all compositional arrangements. In decoration, many different styles were borrowed and used by Art Deco. There was also popular interest in aet due to excavations at PompeiiTroyand the tomb of the atr dynasty Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Other styles borrowed included Russian Deoc and Italian Futurismas well as Orphism, Functionalismand Modernism in general.
It was influenced by discoveries in Egyptologyand growing interest in the Orient srt in African art. From onwards, it was often inspired by ywars passion for new machines, such as airships, automobiles and ocean liners, and by this influence resulted in the style called Streamline Moderne.
Art Deco was associated with both luxury and modernity; it combined very expensive materials and exquisite craftsmanship put into modernistic forms. Nothing was cheap about Art Deco: wree of furniture included ivory and silver inlays, and pieces of Art Deco jewelry combined diamonds with platinum, jade, and other ysars materials.
The style artt used to decorate the first-class salons of ocean liners, deluxe trains, and skyscrapers. It was used around the world to decorate the great movie palaces of the late s and s.
Later, after the Great Depressionthe style changed and became more sober. A good example of the luxury style whaf Art Deco is the boudoir of the fashion designer Jeanne Lanvindesigned by Armand-Albert Rateau — made between and It was located in her house at 16 rue Barbet de Jouy, in Paris, which was demolished in The room was reconstructed in the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris.
The walls are covered with molded lambris what are the main objectives of cost accounting sculpted bas-reliefs in stucco.
The alcove is framed with columns of marble on with bases and a plinth of sculpted wood. Whatt floor is of white and black marble, and in the cabinets decorative objects are displayed against a background of blue silk. Her what percent of food in the us is genetically modified had a tub and washstand made of sienna marble, with a wall of carved stucco and bronze fittings.
By the style had become more comfortable, with deep leather club chairs. The study designed by the Paris firm of Alavoine for decoo American businessman in —30, now in the Brooklyn Museum.
By the s, the style had been somewhat simplified, but it was still extravagant. It featured a serpentine armchair and two tubular weee by Eileen Gray, a floor of mat silvered glass slabs, a panel of abstract patterns in silver and black lacquer, and an assortment of animal skins.
The event that marked the zenith of the style and gave it its name was the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts which took place in Paris from April yrars October in This was officially sponsored by the French government, and werw a site in Paris of 55 acres, running from the Grand Palais on the right bank to Les Invalides on the left bank, and along the dfco of the Seine. The Grand Palais, the largest hall in the city, was filled with exhibits of decorative arts from ehat participating countries.
There were 15, exhibitors from twenty different countries, including England, Italy, Spain, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Japan, and the new Soviet Unionthough Germany dec not invited dexo of tensions after the war and the United States, misunderstanding werr purpose deci the exhibit, declined to participate. It was visited by sixteen million people during its seven-month run. The rules of the exhibition required that all work be modern; whxt historical styles were allowed. The main purpose of the Exhibit was to promote the French manufacturers of luxury furniture, porcelain, glass, metal work, textiles and other decorative products.
To further promote the products, all the jears Paris department stores and major designers had their own pavilions. The Exposition had a werre purpose in promoting products from French colonies in Africa and Asia, including ivory and exotic woods.
The interior design followed the same principles of symmetry and geometric forms which set it apart from Art Nouveau, and bright colors, wrre craftsmanship rare and expensive materials which set it apart from the strict functionality of the Modernist style.
While most of the pavilions were lavishly decorated and filled with hand-made luxury furniture, two pavilions, those of the Soviet Union and Pavilion du Nouveau Esprit, feco by the magazine of that name run by Le Corbusier, were built in an austere style with plain white walls and no decoration; they were among the earliest examples of modernist architecture. New York City's skyline c.
American skyscrapers marked the summit of the Art Deco style; they became the tallest and most recognizable modern buildings in the world. They were designed to show the prestige of their builders through their height, their shape, their color, and their dramatic illumination at night.
Black brick on the frontage of the building symbolizing coal was selected to give an idea of solidity and to give the building ahat solid mass. Other parts of the facade were covered in gold bricks symbolizing fireand the entry was decorated with marble and black mirrors. Designed by modernist Wirt C.
What is Art Deco?
Aug 20, · Art Deco was announced to the world in the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris, not as a new movement but one that had been in development for more. Nov 14, · Art Deco , edited by Charlotte Benton, Tim Benton and Ghislaine Wood, revisits this luxurious movement in his golden years, emphasizing the glamour and hedonism of the Jazz Age. Art Deco burst onto the stage at the Exposition internationale des art decoratifs et industriels modernes in Paris and quickly swept the globe. The ever popular art deco style is an architectural and decorative-arts style, popular from to Art Deco is characterised by highly stylised natural and geometric forms and ornaments, which are usually strongly symmetrical. Outstanding American examples of Art Deco are the Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall in New York City.
Art Deco was a reaction to the Art Nouveau movement of the late 19th and early 20th century, which featured an organic, sinuous aesthetic that emphasised geometric shapes in clean, angular, and symmetrical forms with clearly delineated colours. This style infuses simple decorative design into functional objects.
The style itself had already been in practice in creating commercial and public buildings in Paris before the show, but it was this event that brought Art Deco to the attention of artists and aesthetes around the world. At its infancy, the artwork in the Art Deco style emanated luxury and glamour, utilising rare materials e. As the world fell into the throes of the Great Depression post, common materials like steel, plastic, chrome, and glass began to be used more frequently.
Art Deco took inspiration from a variety of sources. It was greatly influenced by Cubism , the art style that broke down reality into bold, geometric forms pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in the s. To capture the spirit of progress, Art Deco looked to the machine. Global industrialisation had quickly transformed the way people lived life, and the artists of the time admired the efficiency of mass production and its impact on the common person. Trains, ocean liners and automobiles were the icons of industry, so their designs seeped into the formal philosophy of Art Deco adherents.
With the mindset of making art that captures the imagination of the masses, graphic artists made great use of the air of modernity that Art Deco exuded. Posters in the s and 30s advertising travel, events, and the latest products took on all the characteristics of the style that was at the time known as Art Moderne. Covers of the latest magazines popped with bright, solid colours in large blocks and parallel lines. Typography was sleek and bold, sending strong, simple messages to their audiences.
After enjoying centuries of reverence from high society and the public, the fine art of painting bowed out of the spotlight at the peak of Art Deco. Many such paintings took on the form of murals. As another classical visual art, sculpting found more use in the highly functional design goals of Art Deco.
Statues loom and therefore demand attention, pairing well with the striking figures that the architecture of the time imposed on busy cities and bustling public places. Much smaller Art Deco sculptures also made an impact on their surroundings. Salons and lobbies of private firms were endowed with statuettes and reliefs, posing persons in idealised, heroic posture.
By the s, industrialisation had made cities hubs of commerce, residence and entertainment. Buildings within these cities served not just as physical structures to house people and businesses, but also as monolithic symbols of progress, promising that the future was something to look forward to, especially in the aftermath of the First World War.
Art Deco sold that vision in all its splendour and promise. Embodying the spirit of modernity in the realm of architecture were the skyscrapers erected in the major cities of America. New York City boasted some of the tallest buildings made, and they were all designed in the Art Deco style.
Undoubtedly the most emblematic of these was the Empire State Building, but the Chrysler Building and Rockefeller Center are two other famous examples.
All of these exemplify the power of clean lines rising high and embellished at the top with spires and geometric patterns. Entertainment establishments caught their audience's attention with bold, bright colours in upright parallel strokes and grand interiors.
Film was the great attraction, as the incorporation of sound had only become commercially viable. As such, cinemas had to accommodate more viewers. Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood, as its name suggests, was constructed with liberal use of Egyptian imagery, trading in exoticism to transport moviegoers into another world. Radio City Music Hall in New York City, meanwhile, could host up to an impressive 6, people in its early years, and it still stands intact as it did when it opened in Just as remarkable as the capacities of these buildings were the interior designs that decorated their halls.
Combinations of coloured marble and ceramics meshed with stained glass and polished stainless steel were abundant. Reliefs of human figures and repeated chevrons and zigzags supplemented grand murals.
Sculptures and furniture inlaid with ivory and mother-of-pearl accentuated the interiors. The Great Depression, however, had a sobering effect on the lavish design of Art Deco architecture. With economies experiencing a dramatic downturn, construction had to be more practical and less extravagant.
With a subdued, less ornamented aesthetic orientation, Streamline Moderne was the architectural style that followed Art Deco in the s. Streamline Moderne still had the conceptual foundation of simplicity and modern sleekness of Art Deco but traded strong angles and vivid colours for smooth curves and subdued whites. Verticality gave way to long horizontal lines. Aerodynamism was important in technological advancement, which reflected in architecture made in Streamline Moderne.
Architects of this art philosophy also took cues from nautical designs, implementing railings and port-hole windows into transport terminals. Opulence and technological innovation were certainly signatures of the Roaring 20s, but the era also marked important social progress, specifically for women. With greater political and cultural cachet, more women started breaking free of the traditional image society had imposed on them, and it was in the realm of fashion that this freedom was most obviously expressed.
The tight waistlines, big tresses, ample bosoms, and elaborate tailor-made dresses were exchanged for a tubular silhouette, shorter haircuts, higher hemlines, and mass-produced fabrics. Fashion magazines came into vogue, spreading the latest clothing ideas from Jeanne Lanvin and Paul Poiret farther and faster into the hands of ladies across classes.
Movie stars were born, setting trends every girl would want to emulate. The Jazz Age was in full swing in clubs and speakeasies. Women were out and about, and they were wearing and living Art Deco. It is the image of The Flapper that personifies the Art Deco fashionable woman; the streamlined sleeveless dress, the distinct colours, and the ornamental accessories all make up the vintage Flapper look.
The glamour of idols from the silver screen was novel. What the leading actresses wore to high-society events is what every woman with wealth had to dress like.
As with all things Art Deco, angles were prominent in their dresses. Fabrics and embellishments were rich and reflective. Gowns flowed all the way to the floor. With women being more inclined to participate in sports and leisure activities, there came a need for clothing that is functional and comfortable while also being stylish.
Hence, lightweight fabrics like cotton, airy trousers, and masculine jackets were introduced to the market. While the dresses were relatively streamlined, women accessorised to the brim. The cloche hat was necessary, and it was decorated with feathers, tassels, and brooches.
Women put on makeup in public, so the compact had to look good. Sequins and beads dangled on dresses and handbags. The indulgent heights that fashion reached were eventually brought low with the Great Depression. This, however, did not mean a complete regression of the boldness that came with Art Deco. While hemlines dropped and ornamentation decreased, fitted dresses came back into fashion with women sewing their own clothes.
They also acquired the option of picking ready-to-wear outfits from department store catalogues featuring affordable yet stylish pieces.
The prosperity of the postwar era was reflected in the variety of jewellery that people wore, and Art Deco jewellery was lustrous, colourful, and exotic. Diamonds were the major gemstones that studded jewellery for the previous decades, so there was a push for bright coloured gemstones as well as onyx and black enamel to signal a change in the times.
Emerald, jade, coral, lapis lazuli, and turquoise, among others, were inlaid into gold, as East Asian and Egyptian influences made their way to the Western world. This, however, did not stop the dominance of diamonds. Platinum became more common as the base metal, because of its malleability and durability. The clean, chromatic sheen supplemented the lustre of diamonds, lending to a luxurious all-white aesthetic.
White gold becomes a popular alternative as a partner to diamonds. The deep blacks of onyx set a stark contrast to diamond brilliance. Technological advances in metalworking and gemstone cutting led to finer symmetrical geometric patterns - an Art Deco signature - appearing in jewellery. Die-cast machines made complex filigree designs possible.
Mother-of-pearl, polished metal, sculpted glass, and even ball bearings were some of the uncommon materials used in crafting jewellery of this period. Elaborate pieces were accents to the streamlined, shrinking dresses. Dangling earrings helped frame the dolled-up face with a short haircut. Long pearl necklaces hung over plunging necklines and exposed backs.
Bracelets and bangles adorned bare arms. Wristwatches crossed over from being highly functional devices used by men in World War I to gemstone encrusted fashion pieces by women. Art deco cigarette case, 's Source: 1stdibs. As women enjoyed smoking in public, cigarette holders and cases also had to reinforce the image of affluence.
Jewellery houses implemented geometric patterns and East Asian designs and embedded precious stones in the making of such items. Despite the Great Depression dampened the vibrancy of Art Deco during the s, the form adapted.
What followed was the more muted, uniform stylings of modernism. Art Deco would experience a revival in the s, especially after art historian Bevis Hillier documented works of the style in his book Art Deco of the 20s and 30s.
Art Deco, with its ever-optimistic outlook on modernity, remains a style inspiration in the world of graphic design, fashion and furniture design today. Art Nouveau Edwardian Victorian Georgian. Love, Lillicoco. Source: Arch Daily. Source: Wikimedia Commons. Source: Pinterest. Source: ArtStack. Source: Empire State Building. Source: Geograph. Source: Reddit.
Source: Art Deco Style.